History by Mwl. Mbezi

          HISTORY CLASS   

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The student:
Demonstrates knowledge on the causes of the major crisis in the capitalist countries and ability to assess their impact on Africa
Demonstrates knowledge on the motives of the struggle for independence and ability to evaluate the strengths, weakness and contribution of the efforts made and strategies used the African people to achieve political independence
Demonstrates knowledge on the efforts made to bring about social and economic development in Africa after independence and shows ability to assess their strengths and weakness.
Demonstrates knowledge on the efforts made by African nations to promote international cooperation and interdependence and assesses their achievements and problems. 


Background of the Topic
Capitalist crisis refers to the struggles or fighting among the European imperialist powers as a result of the development of capitalism, after attaining the highest stage of imperialism that involved the expansionism and aggrandizement among European nations, capitalism had three key stages that is mercantilism,(15th C to 18th C ), Competitive Capitalism (1750 – 1860s) and Monopoly capitalism (1860 – 21st Century).
Because capitalism was built on the ground of economic expansionism, capitalist crisis were inevitable after attaining her zenith, every imperialist nation wanted to dominate the other. The capitalist crisis included:-
First World War (1914 – 1918)
Great Economic Depression (1929 -1933)
Second World War (1939 -1945)

I. First World War: Causes and Impact on Africa
Meaning: The First World War was a military conflict from 1914 to 1918 that involved many countries of Europe as well as the US and other nations throughout the World. It was one of the most violent and destructive wars in the history of Europe and the world at large.
The First World War was a pure imperialistic war because of her nature and motives of fighting, the imperialist European powers wanted to re-divide the world market among themselves, the war began on July 28, 1914 with the declaration of war by Austria-Hungary on Serbia and hostilities between the Allied and Central Powers continues until the signing of the armistice on November 11, 1918, the war lasted for a period of years, 3 months and 14 days.
The War fought between two antagonistic military camps, these were:-
Cadual entente which comprised of Britain, France and Russia later alone USA, China, and Serbia and other powers joined and became known as Allied forces.
Triple Alliance of German, Austria, Hungary and Italy which later joined by other nations like Turkey, Bulgaria and became to be known as the Central Power.
The First World War began as a local European war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia on July 28, 1914, was transformed into a general European struggle by Germany’s declaration of war against Russia on August 1, 1914 and eventually became a global war involving 32 nations.
The immediate cause of the war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophia by a Serb nationalist at Sarajevo in Bosnia on June 28, 1914.

i. Formation of military alliance system/military camps.
These military unions of the capitalist nations for self defence against any common enemy, within the imperialist European nations to safe guard their imperialist economic interests, it was agreed upon the camp-members that in case any member of the camp is attacked, other members should come out and fight together.

ii. Development of militarism in Europe
This was the competition of manufacturing military deadly weapons within the imperialist industrialized European nations aimed at to achieving their imperialist motives of their respective nations.

iii. The Balkan crises.
Many European Imperialistic countries were interested in controlling the Balkans as their colonies after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, small and defenceless states emerged in the Balkans which felled a prey to the big imperialistic nations who wanted to control them.

iv. European Nationalism
Many European countries joined this war to defend their national interest, example the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand by the Serbian student was an act of nationalist to Serbia, while the fighting to France was for nationalistic interest to regain Alsace and Loraine from Germany, the same happened to Russia, Germany and Austria.

v. Russia and Germany expansionism
Russia wanted to control all the Balkan states in Eastern Europe and form a stronger large Russian state as well. Germany after her unification and underwent industrial revolution under the leader of Keiser William II by 1905, Germany militarism and imperialism reached the climax wanted to rule the whole world, with the intention of conquering France and Russia first such conflicting interest between Russia and Germany made the world peace at stake one had to fight the other as to achieve her goals hence the outbreak of world war one in 1914.

vi. Revenge and suspicious
The First World war was fought on two key principles among  the imperialist nations, for instance France joined the war because she wanted to revenge defeat of Franco-Prussian was with Germany of 1871 where she had lost Alsace and Loraine, for Russia wanted to revenge German and Austria for taking Balkans, Austria wanted to revenge assassination of Archduke Ferdinand.

vii. European balance of power
Every European country wanted to maintain superiority over another military, economically, and politically, this led to the outbreak of world war for stance Germany wanted to remain as the lion of the land while Britain wanted to remain as the Shark of the sea because it was very powerful on marine technology, such ideology made other nation to struggle for recognition hence the world peace was at stake thus the outbreak of world war in 1914 as to maintain their status quo and recognition.

viii. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and his wife Sophia.
The assassination of Ferdinand and his wife by the Serbian Student at Sarajevo was an immediate cause of the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.

ix. Attack of Belgium by German
This was also the immediate cause of the war as a military strategy Germany mobilizes and stationed her troops in Belgium to blockade and fight French troops from advancing, German attack on Belgium in August, 1914 made Britain quickly join the war attacking German.

USA and other nations joined the war in 1916. USA joined the First World War due to the following reasons:-
Cultural relation between Britain and USA thus pressure from the people of USA to help Britain in the war forcing USA to join the war.
The role of USA president Woodrow to create World war peace in order to establish World body to maintain world security
The loan provided by USA to allied forces USA to help them to win the war so as they can be able to pay back.
The sinking of USA ships by Germany U boat, four USA ships that were carrying food and other supplies were sunk by Germany and a number of passengers were killed.

The First World War brought the following effects on the lands of Africa.
1. Death and destruction of African properties
The war led to the destruction of African properties especially African Agriculture and deaths of Africans who participated in the war like in Libya, Somalia and Kenya.

2. Extreme exploitation
The aftermath of the First World War led to intensive exploitation of African resources because the European nations wanted to compensate what they had lost during the war. Example, introduction of new taxes, forced labour, mineral extraction became dominant.

3. Great depression
The First World War led to the Great Depression which victimized Africa economies that led to the fall of the prices of cash crops which became a region to solve the problems of great depression in Europe. Example prices of African agriculture produce fallen, wages of social services reduced.

4. Fall of produce prices in African colonies
The war led to the fall of producer prices because of severe financial crisis that faced the metropole and colonies during the period of war.
5. Cut down of colonial government
Colonial Governments in Africa cut down expenditures in social services were tremendously reduced because of the severe financial constraints faced in the war period.

6. Rise of Welfare associations
The war led to the rise of welfare associations in the colonies which were formed as a method to intensively exploit African resources such welfare associations included Kilimanjaro Native Planters, Bukoba Coffee growers, Bataka associations etc.

7. Introduction and development of colonial schemes.
The colonial governments in Africa established different colonial schemes in order to generate big qualities and quantity as to increase export in the metropole.
8. Rise of socialism in Africa

10. Social miseries
The war led to social misery in various parts of Africa where the war reached suffering caused by homelessness, displacement, famine, diseases, fear and uncertainties.

11. Involvement of African into the War.
A lot of Africans were recruited by the colonial powers to fight on their side so many Africans were taken to work as cooks, porters, security guards and fighters; this led to depopulation in Africa and sex imbalances.

Great depression is the name given to the profound global economic crisis; the depression generally refers to the economic crisis, the great depression generally refers to the economic crisis that occurred in 1929 up to 1933 during the period of inter war or it may be described as an economic disaster that originated from USA following the collapse of New York stock exchange of the wall street on 19th October, 1929.
 When the stock exchange market crashed in 1929 bank depositors worried that the bank would go bankrupt and rushed to withdraw their deposited in cash, these runs on bank made many banks to fail, here depositors besiege Merchants Bank in that made the beginning of the spread of the great depression.

Existence of hyper inflation (high depreciation of money) that facilitated to the collapse of the economies.

Mass unemployment tremendous and unprecedented surge in unemployment. The official figures are impressive, peaking at around 6 million unemployed in Germany, 14 million in the United States, and 2.7 million jobless in Britain due to  low economic activities.

Social tensions increased considerably, with a rising intolerance towards groups or individuals who were perceived to be “economic rival” or “outsiders”. Many people began to blame their neighbors for the economic collapse.

Low purchasing power i.e. inability of people to buy their basics and this was because of low economic activity.

Protectionism was by preventing commodities from other nations, was applied as one of methods to prevent depression.

Starvation, famine and malnutrition related diseases; the depression took a heavy toll on the physical and mental health of society. In Hamburg, for example, over 50 per cent of all young men were unemployed for more than two years and they were especially hard-hit by the social and psychological.

Low production of industrial goods and steady fall of price levels.

Closure of financial institution like banks because of low level economic activities.

Wide spread of economic depression in the world except Russia.

The depression also heightened the division of experience between men and women. In some cases married women workers were forced from the workplace by state legislation in a campaign against so-called “double earners” (because their husbands also brought home a wage packet.

The failure of governments to combat the depression effectively caused domestic politics to become increasingly turbulent, in much of Central and Eastern Europe, as in the Weimar Republic.

First world war of 1914, this war created an economic vacuum, where by during the war many European countries were incurring high war expenditure while no production thus after the war the European nations wanted to compensate the gap of production that occurred during that period, which led to over production hence low prices on agricultural and industrial products, hence low investment which led to mass unemployment that brought low purchasing power that leads to poor welfare like famine starvation and death thus great depression.

Multi distribution of capitalist economy or uneven distribution of national economy in the capitalist nations, where by in pure, capitalist nation its only few individuals that happen to own and control production for stance in USA by the time of great depression; it was only 5% of the population that owned the economy, unlike, in socialism economy thus any, withdraw of such people from investments it affects the entire economy thus the collapse of New York stock exchange in 1929 led to the investors to withdraw their money from the stock market which led to economic depression of 1930s

Heavy loans during the fighting heavy debts from USA to France and Britain were acquired to facilitate the war even after the war more debts were got from USA like financial loans to reconstruct the war damaged European nations, the result was when the pressure to repay loans and interests became greater particularly in Europe, it created an economic situation where by huge sum of money begun flowing from Europe to USA. This destroyed international trade, thus European nations couldn’t develop but all of them depending on USA thus any problem on USA economy had to affect the entire world.

War indemnity of Germany and senseless cycle payment Germany was asked to pay huge indemnity or repatriation of 6.5 billion dollars to the victor powers first of all this amount of money was too huge for Germany which had just come from war that led to inflation, and created senseless cycle payment where by Germany acquire loans from USA as to pay Britain and France who wanted to repay the loans from USA, who borrowed Germany thus a senseless cycle payment, that any thing that would affect UA economy would affect the entire world economy hence the collapse of new York stock exchange led to great economic depression.

The collapse of new York stock exchange on 19th October 1929 this was the immediate cause of the great depression, many investor in USA and out side USA had invested a lot in USA stock exchange the fall of the prices of shares, made the investors to withdraw their shares which led to low investment that led to closure of financial institutions like banks and credit facilities, hence great depression.

Absence of international financial institution like, IMF and World Bank which would have acted as advisor and regulators of economic and financial issues in the world, like controlling inflation production, scarcity and financial regulation, etc, thus its absence in I 930s led to the great economic depression.

Over production of agriculture and industrial products after the First World War, that period was characterized with over production of agriculture and industrial out put both in the periphery and in the metro pole, this led to the fall of prices of output of industrial and agriculture, which discouraged production in the long run, thus great economic depression.

Political instabilities during inter war period this, period did not enable many European nations to engage into commodity production and international trade, it left little time for European and USA to engage in economic activities which led to poor planning that culminated into economic slump.

Bolshevik revolution of 1917, after under going the revolution Russia begun to under go command and central controlled economy, which narrowed the world market that led to the piles of goods with out market from America and in western European nations, hence economic Great depression.

Poor economic policies like protectionism were also responsible for great economic depression e.g. USA during the inter war period practiced and pursued discriminative economic policy against world economies she passed the “Mc Cumber tariff’ in 1922 to shelter her economies ad against imports of nation wishing to export more goods.

The Collapse of the Austria instalt credit bann that provided loans to European nations but collapsed in May 1931 due to the withdraw on the French funds the financial crisis was intensified in Europe.

The Recovery programme after world war one, the European nation begun to discriminate the USA goods the European nation begun the recovery of agriculture sector which led to the discriminating of agriculture products in USA that resulted the pile of goods because of fewer buyers this affected the production and that marked the beginning of the great depression.

Fall of price commodity
The great depression led to the decline of African cash crops tremendously like cotton, coffee, sisal and cocoa because the demand at the metropole was also very low the peasants and the European settlers, who were the chief producers of such commodities almost abandoned the production.

Decline in provision of social services
The great depression led to the decline of provision of social services in Africa whereby the colonial government was no longer interested in the investment of social services because of severe financial crisis in Europe.

Establishment of processing industries
The establishment of processing industries like cotton ginneries, oil refinery as to increase the qualitative and quantitative output in the metropolitan countries.

Intensive exploitation
Colonial governments in Africa increased exploitation of African resources. Example land alienation was doubled, new taxes were introduced, forced labour and low wages, this aimed at compensating the financial crisis that had affected their economy.

Region imbalance
The great depression contributed to the regional imbalance of transport network whereby railway lines and roads were constructed in areas where production was high and in places that there was no transport network.

Provision of low wages
The great depression led the Colonial Governments to provide low wages especially on colonial civil servants as to minimize colonial expenditures in the peripheries.

Mass unemployment
There was mass unemployment in many colonies because the colonial government reduced the number of workers so as to reduce colonial expenditure like primary teachers, nurses, clerks and others.

Development of migrant labours
Since the colonial governments increased plantation and increased labour reserves. Example Rukwa, Kigoma, Dodoma in Tanganyika and Northern Uganda as well.

Growth of food stuff
The crisis contributed in putting more efforts in the production of food crops like banana, soya beans, cassava, potatoes, millet because cash crops had fallen in prices.

 Increase in the import industrial commodities
A lot of industrial commodities were imported into the colonies as to decrease the stock piles in the metropole that had lacked market during the period of severe economic crisis.


a.    There was an introduction and expansion in consolidating the peasant cooperative societies e.g. in 1932 the KNCU was formed, the Kagera coffee growers and many others with the aim to improve the production of cash crops.

b.    They initiated grow more campaign in most African colonies by establishing more plantations and forced cropping e.g. in Tanganyika all able bodied men were supposed to work on plantations for 12 hours a day and all shops of wine pombe) were supposed to be closed during the day and only open in the evening. New development schemes were introduced like Ulugulu land usage scheme Mialo rehabilitation scheme Usukuma and Mbulu distocking.

c.    The peasants in settlers economy like Kenya and Zimbabwe were allowed to cultivate the                prohibited cash crops that had been preserved for the settlers like tea, coffee, cotton, etc this was aimed at increasing the quantity of cash crop production as to fill the gap in the metropole economies.

d.    African education syllabus and curriculum was changed as to respond with the need  of the          
                 metropolitan, emphasis was put on handcraft agriculture, and  vocational schools as to increase
                production and exploit African cheap labor as a solution to solve the great slump

e.    The colonial government begun to intervene in agriculture sector by providing  subsidies, the
        settlers classify peasant, farmers, and provide them farming implements like hybrid seeds,       
        fertilizers and packaging, to increase the quality and the quantity of the production.

f.    The colonial government also begun to develop transport network like railway, harbors ,ports, so
        as to ease the transportation of the highly needed raw materials  in the metro pole.

g.    Also the colonial government increased the activities in mining of gold diamond, copper, and
        exploitation of African cheap labour e.g. in Kenya the Kipande system was increased from 80 days
        to 160 per person annually.

h.    Intensification of labour recruiting bureaus were set to encourage and recruit migrate labour for
        stance SILABU in Tanganyika, railways were asset to transport labour force from labour reserves to

i.    New taxation where introduced in the colonial state to increase colonial revenues  as well as to 
        encourage cheap labour of the Africans new taxes introduced included Hut tax poll tax, livestock tax
        among others.

World War 11, global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most devastating war in human history. It began in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French-Polish coalition but eventually widened to include most of the nations of the world. It ended in1945, leaving a new world order of the Superpowers dominated by the United States and the Union of Soviet. Socialist Republics (USSR)

The Second World War, reached in every part of the world in the five continents and in7 seas. More than 50m people lost their lives in this disastrous war, more than 22m were soldiers and more than 28rn were civilians. The real cause of this war is not known but most historians concur that it was the combination of factors that led to the outbreak of the World War II. The war begun between September 1939 to August 1945 .It was fought between the antagonistic imperialistic nations in two camps, i.e. the Berlin —Rome Tokyo axis Vs the allied forces being led by Britain, France, USA, Russia etc. The Berlin Rom Tokyo axis was defeated and surrendered.

It was also unique in modern times for the savagery of the military attacks unleashed against civilians, and for the adopt [on by Nazi Germany of genocide (of Jews, Roma [Gypsies], homosexuals, and other groups) as a specific war aim. The most important determinants of its outcome were industrial capacity and personnel. In the last stages of the war, two radically new weapons were introduced: the long-range rocket and the atomic bomb.

The Versailles peace treaty of 1919, many world historian do agree that the seed that led to the Second World War was sown during the Versailles peace settlement, the Versailles men, They had reduced Germany to a military cipher and had reorganized Europe and the world as they saw fit, this created more enemies than friends for example, Hitler promised to overturn the Versailles Treaty, for .having humiliated Germany to that extent, he secured additional support from Germany peasants, Turkey, Italy, too were ill-treated by the treaty and opted to revenge. Thus the outbreak of World War II in 1939

Formation of hostile camps, after the failure of league of nation Germany was very successful to create an alliance with Italy, Tokyo, and Japan thus the Berlin —Rome —Tokyo axis which forced France to form the Anglo French hegemony which was later on joined by other countries and formed the allied forces versus central power, it was these camps that the second world war was organized it provided confidence and increase enmity between the military camps that made the war inevitable.

Hitler and Mussolini foreign policy, these were characterized by expansionism aggression hatred revenge and domination, Adolf Hitler, the Führer (leader) of the German National Socialist (Nazi) party, preached a brand of fascism predicated on anti-Semitism and racism. Hitler promised to overturn the Versailles Treaty and secure additional Lebensraum (living space) for the German people who, he contended, deserved more as members of a superior race he wanted to make the capital of the world to be at Berlin, this created the outbreak of the World War II when they attempted to fulfill their desires e.g. 1935 Mussolini attacked Ethiopia, in 1938 Hitler attacked Austria, 1939 Hitler attacked Poland as that resulted the outbreak of World War II.

Military preparedness and rearmament, when Hitler came to power in 1933 Having denounced the disarmament clauses of the Versailles Treaty, created a new air force, and reintroduced conscription, in March 1936 Hitler dispatched German troops into the Rhineland he withdraw Germany from the league of nation and begun manufacturing more weapons preparing for revenge, this act attracted other countries to do the same thing, e.g. Britain France increased their military budget to prepare weapons. Such military readiness brought tension which brought the war in 1939.

Imperialism, Germany begin the war because he wanted to regain his lost imperial interest in Africa like in Tanganyika as well as to get more colonies in Africa for Italy she fought to get more colonies, to get more colonies and territories, France wanted to maintain and defend her imperialistic gains from Germany, while Russia was interested in the Balkans and Britain wanted to maintain her status-quo as the shark of the sea with the colonial empire.
Extreme nationalism /ultra nationalism Many European nations began to preach nationalistic ideologies that brought excessive nationalism. Germany wanted to rule the whole world, Italy wanted to form another Roman Empire, Japan wanted to control Asia such nationalistic demands led the outbreak of World War II.

Failure of the League of Nations in her major task of maintaining world peace and security, During the 1920s, attempts were made to achieve a stable peace. The first was the establishment (1920) of the League of Nations as a forum in which nations could settle their dispute. The League’s powers were limited to persuasion and various levels of moral and economic sanctions that the members were free to carry out as they saw fit. Such weaknesses were responsible for the out break of world war two.

Chamberlain appeasement policy, he was the prime minister of Britain who feared war he adopted appeasement policy on Hitler as one of the way to keep him happy by giving him loans grants pardoning Germany: debts and official visits which Hitler used as an opportunity to concentrate and to by time as he prepared fore revenge, Britain failed to punish Hitler for aggressing other nations.

Attack of Poland by Germany, this was the immediate cause of World War II on 2” Sept. 1939 at 11:00 am. German troops entered Poland, Britain and French asked Hitler to withdraw from Poland immediately but Hitler gave them a deaf ear. Britain declared war on Germany and on the same, day France declared war on Germany. Thus the outbreak of World War II.

American isolation policy led to the out break of World War II after the end of world war two USA maintained political isolation from the European nations, USA as a strong nation militarily and economically was very significant to maintain the world peace, The United States, disillusioned with the Treaty of Versailles, with the selfish nature of Allied war aims, and with the secret treaties they had signed during the war, disavowed the treaty and the League of Nations included in it, and retreated into political isolationism. Being a neutral state USA would be able to reconcile the vanquished and the victor powers but her political isolation made the war to become inevitable in 1939.

The Spanish civil war in 1936-1939, Hitler tried out his new weapons on the side of right-wing military rebels in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The venture brought him into collaboration with Mussolini, who was also supporting the Spanish revolt after having seized Ethiopia in the Italo-Ethiopian War of 1935-1936, treaties between Germany, Italy, and Japan in 1936-1937 brought into being the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. The Axis Powers thereafter became the collective term for those countries and their allies Germany and Italy used Spanish civil as laboratory for testing their weapons, the weapons proved very effective that made Italy and Germany to build confidence in themselves. Thus inspiring them to wage a major war in order to realize their long term objectives like, to regain their lost colonies, to dominant the world.

Involvement of Africa into the war some African were recruited to fight on the behalf of their colonial power for stance the British colonies recruited the king African riffles (KAR) to fight on the side of the allied forces.

It led to the rise of African nationalism especially after the returning of ex-soldiers who begun to mobilize their fellow Africans to fight against colonialism after getting awareness, it was attributed both on internal and external forces.

It led to the formation of UN after the collapse of the League of Nations where by African countries become members of UN especially those that became independent.

Destruction of African agriculture and economic activities since the war reached in African soil like in Somali land, Kenya, Libya and other parts African property were destroyed

The aftermath of second world led to the intensive exploitation of African resources by the colonialist as to compensate the losses that they incurred during the war although this led to large scale nationalism if Africa.

The World War II led to the rise of USA as leading capitalist nations which introduced open door policy Neo colonialism as compensate what for having not colonized like European nations.

It led to the spread of socialist ideologies in Africa e.g. Some countries began to practice socialism e.g. Ujamaa village in Tanganyika, commons mans charter in Uganda, consciousness in Zambia etc.

The Second World War led to death and suffering since many Africans fought on the side of their colonial master. Around 100,000 Africans were mobilized in East and southern Africa whereby, many of them died, there was outbreak of diseases and hunger killed many Africans.

It led to the formation of None Allied Movement (NAM) which was formed in 1955 in Bundug Indonesia whereby neutral nations who did not belong in side, i.e. capitalism or communism.

Collapse of Italian colonialism in Africa the war marked the end of Italian imperialism in Africa following the defeat of central axis Italy lost her colonies of Libya and Eritrea.

Transfer the mandatory territories to the UN trust ship and the trust territories were put under the supervision of the UN which included Tanganyika Namibia, Rwanda Burundi and many others.

Intensification of exploitation in the colonies measures were taken in te colonies to increase raw materials in the metro pole, a lot of exports were needed from the colonies were needed to rebuild the war ruined Europe, for example new taxes were introduced, land alienation, forced cropping, processing industries.

Development of rural urban protest, which was attributed to extreme exploitation in the colonies mass discontent was developed both in the rural and workers in the urban centers who manifested in the form of strikes and riots

Introduction of new colonial economic and social reforms and social policies in the colonies for example import substation industries were encouraged in relation to education the curriculum was changed and the emphasis was put on hand work and agriculture as to envisage qualitative and quantitative production.

Led to environment degradation in the colonies. Was caused due to over use of the environment during that period as to create enough commodity for export in the metro pole for example land became exhausted.

State intervention in the colonial economy. The colonial state became increasingly
involved in organizing coordinating and controlling commodity production in the colonies where by it involved in marketing of export commodities by creating export marketing boards, for Example Coffee marketing board in Kagera Lint marketing board in Uganda.




What is African Nationalism?
There has emerged as many definitions of African nationalism as there are scholars who have tried to define the word. However, the following descriptions are useful.
African nationalism is a desire of African people to terminate all foreign rules. Basically, nationalism is the political will of the people of Africa in opposition of foreign domination but in favour of African rule. It represents African struggles against Western colonialism and imperialism (by Ndabaningi Sithole).

Nationalism is an expression of hostility to alien rule. In the colonial context, nationalism is anti-colonialism. Colonialism, therefore, should be regarded as one of the major progenitors-ancestors of African nationalism, because any people subjected to alien rule will struggle to overthrow that rule. The process may take a generation or a century, but it is inevitable stage (by S. Kiwanuka).

Nationalism is a consciousness on the part of individuals or groups of people regarding their membership of a nation state either already existing or to which they aspire. It is also a desire to achieve political and economic freedom over all social and economic development, as well as the cultural revival of that national state (by Adu Boahen).

Nationalism is a patriotic sentiment or activity on the part of a group of Africans held together by the bonds of common language and common historical experience to impose their right to live under a government of their own making for the preservation of their political, economic, and social interests (by K.B.C. Onwubiko).

Nationalism is the feeling of national consciousness or awareness by the people that they are members of a nation state and desire freedom from colonial rule (by Michael Crowder).

The process of decolonization or national liberation was fundamental in
Africa, for it allowed African states to regain their independence, which they had lost for more than half a century. The rise of African nationalism dates back to the period of colonial conquest and the imposition of colonial rule on one hand and primary African resistance against colonial rule on the other hand. But later, the intensification of exploitation stimulated the nationalistic struggle.

Nationalism literally refers to the desire, love, or sprit for ones nation. In Africa the term nationalism has been used to signify the struggle of independence or self determination against foreign domination, in case of Europe the term nationalism has been used to signify Struggle for national unification in Germany and Italy and to acquire oversea colonies.

Some scholars define nationalism as feeling of national consciousness or awareness by the people of the same state and desire for freedom from colonial rule.
Nationalism in Africa is divided into two phases according to the period;
i. Nationalism before 1945
ii. Nationalism after 1945 before 1945.

In the first decades of colonial rule most East African communities experienced only spasmodic contacts with the white man. But by the mid of 1 920s, the activities of the government officials, missionaries and settlers were beginning impinge or to affect much more direct on the lives of many Africans. Acts like land alienation, forced labor injustice and taxation now were affecting the Africans more. As in most other part of tropical Africa the missionaries proved themselves the most vigorous alien stimu1ators of change and their success measured in the statistics of conversion, was often remarkable. But excessive missionary pressure could serve to produce countervailing African nationalism as to protect their culture.

The struggle for self determination and resistance against the intruders begun in Africa immediately after the inception of colonialism in around 1890s. The Africans started to resist colonial domination in the early time e.g. Abushiri and Bwana Hen in Tanganyika, Shona and Ndebele in Zimbabwe, Nama and Herero in Namibia. Some of the resistance was passive, while others collaborative and others active.

The period and the intensity in which the early African resistance occurred in various societies depended on the intensity of colonial activities and its impact. For example as early as the 1 890s the
people of Ghana had already forn1d the Gold. Coast Aborigine’s Right Protection Society which was
to fight against laws which had been enacted to expropriate African land. Also in 1920 the biggest
welfare association in the region was the National Congress of British West Africa in Accra. It was largely formed by the emerging African elites who wanted increased and effective representation in various organs of the state especially n the legislature.

Were spontaneous and ethnic based in nature /regional oriented. It lacked national scope,
every tribe was resisting alone and fight for tribal or regional interests. e.g. Kagera Coffee
Growers, Kilimanjaro National Cooperation Union [K.N.C.U.] etc

Were apolitical and lacked clear political focus, i.e. it lacked political elements they were fighting for social welfare of their society’s e.g. high wages, land alienation, and poor working conditions e.g. the kikuyu central association fought for the return of the lost land the restoration of kikuyu culture and rejection of missionary teachings which interfered with the culture of female circumcision which became common among the kikuyu in 1 920s which they regarded that the operation of clitorodectomy or female circumcision is a sign of woman hood.

They were elites’ based mostly organized by those who were working for the colonial government in urban areas they organized themselves and begun to ask for their rights, the interests they represented were mainly related to the cooperation with colonialism. E.g. Harry Thuku a clerk in colonial government services in1922 who started the younger kikuyu association in Nairobi.

Most of the resistances were easily suppressed by the colonialist in other words registered limited success e g the Maji Maji uprising, the Shona Ndebele uprising, the resistance of the Dembe people of Angola in 1907-10.

They lacked well organized and systematic form of resistance most of the uprising were sporadic in nature and generated internally rather than externally e.g. cattle confiscation, land alienation etc

It lacked the element or uniformity;- and effectiveness it was characterized by uprising in different areas and in different time.

They were mostly motivated by the restoring of the pre-colonial social order, which had been over thrown by the colonialists.

Political grievances
They lost their independence to the foreigners thus nationalism to regain their lost independence.
African rulers were thrown away and replaced them by foreign rulers who were imposed on the African that they detested and wanted to restate their traditional rulers.

Economic grievances
Forced labour to work on the colonial plantations to provide cheap labor any African who resisted was punished heavily

 Imposition of heavy taxes to initiate money economy taxes like hut tax, poll tax, matiti tax were introduced as to force the indigenous to work in the plantation

Cattle confiscation as to deny African from engaging in other economic activities and resort on supplying cheap labour.

Land alienation to keep African away from practicing their subsistence agriculture and begin to supply cheap labor in plantations

Loss of control of their trade like Long distance trade and Trans-Saharan trade and the introduction of the so called legitimate trade
Destruction of African agriculture. Which was self sustaining that based on the needs of Africa and in place cash crop plantation were introduced

Social grievances.
Colonial injustice and oppression like long working hour’s social abuses and separation of men from their families.

Heavy punishment like chopping off ribs of the Africans in case of the Congo colony under Belgium, corporal punishment in Tanganyika under Carl Peter

Racism and segregation of Africans, by insulting them by their color and making them the third grade citizens on their own land

Destruction of African values and traditions and implanting foreign culture like religion language education and culture.

This refers to nationalistic activities that occurred after 1945, after the Second World War it was in this period that African was successful in their struggle at times is referred as modern nationalism. It was characterized by the following
Well organized and planned by elites African leaders those were educated from colonial schools.

It was a national wide that it covered the whole nation through opening up many branches in the whole state both in the rural and urban areas

It was led by the elites i.e. educated leaders who were focused e.g. Nyerere ,Kenyatta, Nkrumah, Obote

It was political in origin i.e. they struggled for political independence of Africa.

It was dominated by both dialogue and armed struggle, where dialogue proved a failure.

It ware motivated by both internal and external factors unlike those before 1945 which were motivated by internal factors.

It led to the independence of some nations i.e. it was successful in getting independence for African nations.

The factors that gave birth to African nationalism are of two kinds;
• Internal factors
• External factors

These were forces that were internally motivated, that generated within Africa societies that brought about nationalism in Africa. These included the following factors.
Formation of peasant cooperative union in rural areas to defend the interest and welfare of the farmers some associations were formed by the colonialists as to speed up the production and the marketing of cash crops as well as sensitizing peasants about cultivation, through their associations. But later alone developed nationalistic feelings and turned against the colonialists using their association’s structures in rural areas. Some of the associations included The Kilimanjaro Cooperative Union, Victoria Cooperative, Buhaya Cooperative Union etc.

Intensive exploitation after the Second World War, in the colonies the colonizers wanted to revamp their ruined economies, which ware heavily damaged by the war, large scale colonization was carried out. New measures to increase production in the colonies and to reduce metro pole expenditure on the colonies were introduced like; Land alienation to establish more plantations for the white settlers, Forced labor to work on the colonial plantations as to increase out put. New, taxes like gun tax hut tax were introduced. Etc. Such exploitation awakened African to start fighting for their self determination thus rise of nationalism mace African aware.

Formation of independent churches .These were the churches that were lead by the Africans breaking away from main stream white churches, to challenge their misdeeds over the Africans, they addressed not only religious but also social political and economic grievances of the Africans such churches included. Joseph Ejayi in West Africa, the Kikuyu Native church, the Watch tower church movement in Malawi 1906, the African national church in Tanganyika The people God and religion of Jesus in Kenya United native church in Cameroon etc Such churches openly criticized the colonialists and encouraged their followers to fight them thus the rise of African nationalism

Formation of segregated African schools, after realizing that the missionary and colonial schools taught nothing but European based syllabus some African societies began their own schools, like among the kikuyu in Kenya Africans were taught African syllabus .this helped in educating Africans and developing the sprit of nationalism.

Rise of elites who had attained colonial education like Nyerere in Tanganyika, Nkrumah in Ghana, Kamuzu Banda in Malawi Abafemi Awolowo of Nigeria ,etc this education helped them to get used to the white language to get exposed to various struggle and liberation of the world, but on top of that some elites came from outside Africa the combination of both helped to the rise of nationalism through provision of leadership for nationalistic struggles

Ghana independence in 1957, it was an example to stimulate other African nations to begin fight for their freedom so it as possible for them also to attain independence from their colonial powers

The Italy against Ethiopia war of 1935- 1941 under Mussolini and Haile Selasie and Ras Imra increased the momentum of African nationalism Italy an industrialized nation was heavily and bravery resisted by an African nation Ethiopia this boosted, African confidence to wards their struggle for independence was defeated.

Formation of social welfare association these aimed to improve the working conditions of African workers discriminations and colonial abuses to the Africans such associations largely based in urban centers and comprised colonial civil servants like; The kikuyu central association in Kenya that was formed by Harry Thuku The railway territory civil association in Tanganyika, Tanganyika Territory Civil Service Association (T.T.C.S.A)which was formed by Martin Kayamba the peoples union in 1908 in Nigeria. Such association exerted more pressure on the colonialist to consider giving African independence which led to nationalism.

Mass media especially news paper played a big role in spreading awareness among the population in both rural and urban areas such news paper included Sauti ya TANU in Tanganyika The pilot and the comet in Nigeria.

Colonial social infrastructures also played a big role in facilitating the spread and the rise of African nationalism that’s why some historian do say that colonialism sown a seed of it own destruction, infrastructures like railways roads facilitated the nationalistic activities in rural and urban centers by spreading the massage of liberations in all parts of Africa.

These were factors that motivated nationalism but being generated from out side Africa such forces included.
The returning ex-soldiers who participated in the war on the side of their colonial masters assisting them as porters and security guards of army camps, this participation brought awareness since these soldiers were exposed to western democracy, freedom, and liberation massage some veterans like Dedan Kimathi who ware latter a leader of Mau-Mau in Kenya. Jonathan Okwiriri who became the president of the younger Kavirondo formed movements that directly opposed the colonialists.

Formation of U.N which replaced the league of nation where independent African states were allowed to participate as members it become an organization of all nations African and Asian nations through the UN opposed the colonialist and demanded for self determination, unlike during the league of nation where African colonies became mandatory colonies of European nations

The India Pakistan independences. These acted as an external pressure for the Africans to emulate both were British colonies that attain their independence in 1948 as one nation which later separated in two nations, African quoted such incidences as a negotiative tool to argue for there independence.

The Bandug conference of April 17th 1955 where Asians and Africans nations like South Africa Ghana Nigeria Egypt Libya met in Indonesia to discuss their problems which include colonialism and economic development, they emphasized solidarity, it was during this conference that. N.A.M. was formed in this conference.

Rise of communism in U.S.S.R the Second World War witnessed the expansion and consolidation of the communist bloc Russia begun to provide material and moral support for anti-colonial struggle for African e.g. it supported rebel groups in Angola and Namibia to fight colonialists.

Marshal plan, this was initiated by George Marshall the prime minister of U.S.A, whereby he began giving loans to the war ruined European nations on conditions that they should decolonize in Africa arid Asian nations, by granting independence to those nations.

Open- door policy of U.S.A. U.S.A introduced a policy of conducting business with Independent African states thus it begun requesting colonialist to give independence to the African countries so as to do business with US.

Formation of Pan-Africanize in 1900 by William Sylvester from the new world which later led to the formation of O.A.U an organization that united all African independent nations to helped in fighting for African independence.

The British labor party which assumed power in 1945 its policies were against colonialism which, they viewed as oppression of humanity and wastage of British tax payers money thus such ant colonial sentiments in Britain made many nationalistic movement to agitate for their immediate Independence.

The rise of USA as a leading capitalist nation after world war two US became the chief supplier of war materials and the war did not affect her economy negatively made her to became a leading capitalist nation and begun to advocate for decolonization of African nations as a trick to compensate for not colonizing through establishment of neo colonialism to get market for her finished goods area of investment for her international corporations.

The after math of Second World War to the colonialist who incurred a lot of losses and could not continue with spending to the colonies so they were forced to grant some independence to some African states. But on top of the above some European powers adopted intensive exploitation to revamp their economies, which awakened many Africans to resist thus rise of nationalism

These were religious Christian’s churches which broke away from European churches because of dissatisfaction/discontent with Christian missionary churches .Some of their discontents included the following:
The European churches preached salvation equality of human being before God ,while African were segregated oppressed not allowed even to lead prayers, they were taken as third citizens

The European churches also involved in helping colonizers for land alienation taxation forced labor and administration which had no any relation with the teaching of the bible.

They also realized that European churches and colonialism were two sides of the same coin that the Christian missionaries were only to pave way for the colonization process of Africa as always its said that the “flag followed the cross”.

They advised Africans concerning political and economic problems by breaking their resistance e.g. through preaching biblical doctrines like the humble people are the blessed for them will enter the kingdom of God, forgive those who wrong you.

They intervened in African culture like girl circumcision among the kikuyu people in Kenya who vehemently detested the missionary activities. That prompted them to start independent schools and begun to spread.

i.    Joseph Enjayi of West Africa.
ii.    The Kikuyu Orthodox church of Kenya.
iii.    The African National church of Tanganyika.
iv.    The Independent church movement in Zaire by Simon Kimbanga.
v.    The Ethiopian church in Rhodesia.
vi.    The United Native Church of Cameroon
vii.    The Watch Tower Church Movement in Malawi 1906
viii.    The people of God and the Religion of Jesus Christ in Kenya.

• They were founded by Africans as to preserve African values and customs

• Most of the independent churches were formed in urban centers

• Initially they were apolitical but after 1945 they started to practice political activities and economic problems 
    were addressed.

• Unlike the peasant cooperative associations which practiced tribalism the independent churches included all
    tribes without segregation.

• They used indigenous languages in their church services (local languages) e.g. Kisukuma.

They carried the Liberation message to the Africans during their church services which brought awareness among the local Africans

They condemned and criticized the white missionary churches as true agents of colonialism who came for their interest but their not godly people

They provided moral support and Devine guidance for the Nationalists.

They trained and groomed Nationalistic leaders in their churches were they learn how to speak to the congregations e.g Jomo Kenyatta, Nyerere, Kamzu Banda, Milton Obote, Samola Michael, Sam Nujoma.

They also provided education for many African leaders through their Seminary schools.

They provided physical assistance to Nationalistic activities like transport and financial assistance, which contributed to gain their independence

They participated in forming of Nationalistic political parties which late alone became he dominant political parties that took over the independence

 Also independent churches become centers for the meetings of Nationalist to discuss their plans or activities.

They also encouraged unity among the Africans to the struggle of self-determination. Using the church as a uniting, factor

These were initially established by the colonial government especially during the inter-war period, their primary aims were to promote peasant produce by searching for market and improvement of agriculture methods of farming, but latter alone turned into nationalism organs that begun to agitate for political demands. For example in northern Tanzania the Chagga who occupied the fertile slopes of mountain Kilimanjaro, had been the first East African people to take over the growing of cash crops. In 1925 a group of Chagga coffee growers formed the first modern peasant association yet to be seen in the rural areas. The Kilimanjaro native planters association (K.N.P.A.) which had 10,000 members with in one year, its’ major aim was to provide efficient means of marketing coffee of local peasants but its’ leaders latter alone turned to be more political activists using the peasant association to promote nationalism. Other peasant associations included;
Bataka association formed in 1927 in Uganda, led by Clemens Kiiza.
The Victoria cooperation union in Sukuma land Mwanza
Central Kikuyu Association of 1928 whose general secretary was Jomo Kenyatta.
Bahaya native growers in Tanganyika 1936.
The Kilimanjaro native planters’ association (K.N.P.A) 1925 under Joseph Mwinyi with about 10,000members.
Usambara native growers Association 1932.
The Ukambani association in Kenya formed in the late 1930s.
 The Taita association.
Kavirondo tax payers and welfare Association.
The Abangine Association in Ghana, and The Nigeria Youth Movement.

They lacked National scope i.e. they were not National wide only based in regions e.g. the Bahaya based in Kagera region and Kilimanjaro native planters association based in Kilimanjaro region etc

They concentrated to demands of peasant welfare e.g. good price for cash crops, removal of middle men etc but not political.

It was dominated only in agricultural productive areas.

In mining areas and labor reserves they did not exist.

Most of the members were peasant and non elites

It largely based on tribalism e.g. the Haya, Chaga and Sukuma and the Gandas etc.

Their primary aim was to provide an efficient of marketing the cash crops produced by the local growers, cash crops such as coffee, cotton, sisal. But latter alone the leaders of the association became increasingly involving into national politics.

To fight for the betterment of peasant welfare and resist the colonial government attempts of introducing agriculture improvement schemes. E.g. in 1938 the colonial government in Kenya wanted the Kamba people to de-stock of their cattle. The Ukambani peasant cooperation resisted it.

They were formed to fight against intensive exploitation like land alienation, forced labor, taxation oppression and through provision of low wages especially to the office boys and domestic servants. During the economic depression of 1930s the colonial government cut their wages by a third, the younger kikuyu association resisted the colonial government measures.

To stabilize and maintain agricultural prices by eliminating middle men who took the big share of their prices. Also to struggle in breaking the settlers’ monopoly of cultivating certain, cash crops that visibly, enjoying supernormal profit especially during the postwar boom. the Africans had been prohibited to cultivate some cash crops, this was especially in the settlers economies

 The aimed to promote agricultural output by searching for good methods of farming and providing their members with agricultural equipments, like hoes ,fertilizers, axes, pangas, etc through credit facilities and loans

They also aimed to unite all the farmers for their general cause of fighting oppression and exploitation. And also to gain full control of their political and economic independence.

They also aimed to act as an adviser to the farmers, by instructing and advising about new methods of cultivation

 It also acted as a representatives of boards for the peasants to the colonialist they reported all grievances the faced the peasants

It brought unity and solidarity between the peasants in rural areas and working class in urban centers to fight against colonialism; it was such solidarity between peasant and elites that led to independence

It became a source of information feedback to the nationalistic movements who based in urban centers

They participated in strike and demonstration against colonialists which weakened the colonial economy that eventually led to the collapse of rule.

They provided leadership for political parties e.g. Jomo Kenyatta who was a general secretary of the peasant association in Kenya later alone become the leader of a political party called KANU in Kenya.

They provided moral support and material support like funds and manpower to the nationalistic to continue with the struggle to achieve independence

Peasant cooperatives played a role of representing all the peasants’ grievances with one voice in the struggle against colonialism.

They supported the education of the students who came from poor families e.g. the Bukoba cooperative union in Tanganyika assisted very many needy students to acquire education which later was used in nationalism

They openly criticized the exploitation of the colonial marketing boards and always were ready to participant in any demonstration and strikes against the colonialist exploitation.
The Second World War which occurred 1939-1945 was a necessary evil to the rise of African nationalism. The after math of Second World War witnessed vigorous nationalistic feelings in Africa which resulted into African independence. The following were the contribution of Second World War to the rise of African nationalism.
The returning ex-soldiers (war veterans) brought awareness and consciousness. During the war African had worked along side with the Europeans, and found them little difference from them selves. They had fought against and killed Europeans in the name of freedom and democracy. They had observed European poverty in Europe and savagery in warfare. Africa with their range and level of experience would never come back at home as docile and subservient colonial labor force. Thus their returning had added more momentum in the process on nationalism.

The Second World War also helped in the changing of attitudes of Europeans them selves towards their colonies. Allied forces especially France, was made accurately aware of its indebtedness to Africa during the war. In order to ensure the continuing African support European administrators had been obliged to promise the social political and economic reforms would fall the allied victory in the war. At a free French conference held at Brazzaville in 1944 Gaulli had promised a ‘new deal’ for the subject of the French African territories. The promise of the Brazzaville was followed up in 1946 with the abolition of the hated indige ‘nat and the corvee labour system. Some European powers became reluctant to implement their promises. Thus rise of intensive nationalism.

The second war also contributed to the rise of African elites who played a big role in organizing and mobilizing Africans for large scale nationalism campaign. In British West Africa the war years saw educated African being increasingly brought in the high administrative positions and on the elected local councils. British colonial administrators begun to contemplate a time in distant future when African would be allowed some degree of self-governance few ex-service men actually played a significant role in the leadership of the ensuing independence movements. But their influence in undermining the aura and prestige of the European was considerable.

The economic hard ship of European nations after the war most of their economies were badly ruined that were not able to continue running vast over sea colonies of Africa and Asia they begun preparing them for self determinations, this explain the independence of India Pakistan Burma Egypt and Ghana immediately after world war two thus made other colonies to increase demanding for their independence.

The Second World War brought intensive exploitation or large scale colonization of Africa. Most of the European countries wanted to revamp their ruined economies by increasing qualitative and quantitative production in the peripheries e.g. new taxes were introduced, land alienation, forced labor, forced cropping in west Africa, grow more campaign in Tanganyika such exploitation awakened the Africans to fight for their independence as to avoid exploitation.

Formation of UN came as a result of Second World War after the failure of the League of Nations. UN became an international body where independent African states were permitted as members; they voiced their grievances through UN and got support from Asian countries that had experienced a similar problem of colonialism this made the process of decolonization possible.

Rise of USSR as leading communist bloc the Second World War enabled USSR to consolidate and expand her influence in Eastern Europe and Asia as well as in Africa. It should be noted that the socialist ideology was against colonialism used her influence in UN by Appling her veto power to oppose the colonialism in Africa. On top of that USSR provided moral and material support to anti- colonial struggles in Africa and Asia.

The rise of USA as a leading capitalist nation. The aftermath of world war two was witnessed with the rise of USA as a leading capitalist nation because of the role it played during the war; it was the chief supplier of raw materials and extended loans under her Marshall plan with conditionality of decolonizing African states by the Europeans and establishment of open door policy by USA, a policy which meant African nations to open up their doors to do business with USA.

The formation of NAM in April 1955 In Bandung Indonesia which was an afro-Asian conference that welcomed delegates from all parts of Africa and Asia who belonged to neither side of capitalism or communism. In this conference it was greed upon that Africans should struggle by all means to get their independence. It brought awareness and new force in Africa for indepen4ence struggle.

The Manchester conference of 1945 after world war two. It was called by pan-Africanist activities that invited all Africans from various parts of Africa and resolved that Africans should use all means peace or forceful to attain their independence.

The USSR adopted communism after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 under the leadership of Lenin and Stalin, USSR became a strong bloc. Her strength reached the climax after the Second World War which enabled her to consolidate and expand her communist ideology in the world. She helped the rise of African nationalism in the following ways;
Ideological support: Many African nationalists adopted Marxist theory as a tool to fight and oppose the capitalist exploitation and oppression. As Karl Marx had advocated views that showed the possibility of doing away with the capitalist ideology. Many Africans were conscious to implement the idea and, this gave the Africans hope that they could at one be successful in their struggles thus the rise of African nationalism.

Alternative for capitalism: socialism did provide the best alternative for capitalism as it clearly spelt out the ills of capitalism which were characterized with exploitation and oppression of man. Basing on this many Africans wanted to adopt an alternative that was fair to the common man for example Ujamaa villages in Tanganyika, common man’s charter in Uganda.

Provided material and immaterial, support to many African nationalists’ e.g. military equipments and military Skills.

It provided scholarships to many African nationalists to go and. study in Russia who later became leaders of independent Africa.

 It used her veto power in UN to oppose colonialism in Africa and used UND to support African struggle.

USSR established class alliance with the revolutionary forces in Africa which gave confidence and determination to fight capitalism.

Russia supported military and armed struggle to liberate them V selves through the barrel of the gun through the provision of equipments and training African man power to carry on the fighting

The USSR was against imperialism and extended sympathy to the African and Asian and she was ready to support nationalist movement to get rid of the colonialists

USA emerged as a leading imperialist power after world war two why? Because both wars first and second war ware not fought in the land of USA thus no destruction that occurred that might have affected industrial production. During the war USA became the major suppliers of military equipment and food for many European nations during the war which made her to emerge as richest nation after the war, on the addition to the above through the Marshall plan that was launched by USA prime minister George Marshall where USA begun to provide loans, to the war toned European nations charging high interest rate made USA to emerge as a leading capitalist nation.

Decline of Britain as a leading capitalist nation after world two due to mass destruction and high expenditure during both wars; because both wars affected Britain very badly that could not regain her economical status back this enabled USA to rise as a leading capitalist nation. There fore after rising as a leading capitalist nation USA begun to advocated for decolonization process in Africa, for her own economic Interest, the methods applied in the decolonization of Africa included the following,
USA championed the struggle for African nationalism through UNO by high fighting the Evil of colonialism to African countries

Giving moral support to African nationalist parties struggling for Independence through her veto power.

Providing loans to support economic venture in African countries to colonizing power at conditions for decolonization

Back ground.
It should be born in mind that USA was a colony of Britain which struggled for her independence in 1 770s and got the independence in 1776 from Britain, USA inherited all the wealth which included slaves’ plantations and the industries, USA began to industrializes in 1 880s, the first and second world war made USA the leading industrialized nation in the world, which made her to begin demanding raw materials, market and area for investment, since it had no colonies in Africa it began to campaign for decolonization of Africa and Asia, so as to establish neo colonialism. It uses human rights as a pretext to achieve her military and economic interest in the colonized and independent world
Had no colonies in Africa Therefore she wanted African countries to be free so that she can share the benefits of African economically under establishment of the new form of colonialism called, neo- colonial relation

They wanted to establish open door policy so as to establish direct trade with Africa. To exploit the market for their industrial out put Independent African states would be a better ground for USA investment for there surplus capita1 thus the establishment of international corporation companies.

To spread capitalist ideology in the Africa and to check on the spreading of socialism in Africa

USA wanted places to establish her military bases, in every part of the world including Africa so as it can maintain her military status-quo.

Ghana was a British colony originally and it was known as Gold Coast. It began her nationalism in 1868 after the formation of the Fante confederation. In 1920 a modern political party the national congress of West Africa was formed but with little success Of independence. In 1940 another party called united Gold Coast foundation was founded under J.B. Danguah and Nkrumah as her general secretary. Ghana was the first country in Africa under the Sahara to attain her independence. Factors that helped Ghana to get her independence earlier than other African nations included the following;
The political party that took over power the conventional people’s party[CCP] enjoyed overwhelming support in the cocoa growing because of her clear policies and implemental programs that would serve the people of Ghana.

Lack of tribalism in Ghana also played significant role in avoiding disunity in the struggle for independence

Also Ghana had developed reasonable social infrastructures that were used by many nationalists in carrying out their campaign reaching in a very corner of the country.

Ghana had no white settlers that would have been an obstacle for the struggle of their self determination thus the path for independence was smooth

English was a common language which many Ghanaians used as a symbol for unity against the colonialists

Leadership Ghana had a strong leadership of Kwame Nkrumah who devoted all her time and life, for the national cause

Also external factors like the independence of India Pakistan and the rise of USSR in 1917 after the Bolshevik revolution

Factors for the C.P.P. to Win Independence for Ghana
1. The message and slogans of C.P.P. (e.g. “Independence now”) was well received by most Ghanaians.
2. The party concerned itself with the genuine social and economic problems of the people.
3. The party exploited the widespread Cocoa Riots of 1948 and reinforced anti-British feelings among the
4. The position of the C.P.P. was strengthened by the creation of the Cocoa Purchasing Company in 1952, which
     spread the message of the C.P.P. among farmers and peasants.
5. The good leadership of one of the ablest sons of Africa, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, was a major contributing factor.
6. The weakness of the opposition parties like the National Liberation Movement.

The independence of Ghana in 1957 brought new impetus in the struggle for African independence; Ghanaian independence had a great influence on African nationalism in the following ways.
Ghana became the headquarters of the ant colonial groups of Africa following her independence all issues pertaining independence in Africa were discussed in Accra Ghana.

Ghana provided material support like man power and funds to many African nations who were struggling for self determination from their colonial masters.

Radio Accra in Ghana became the mouth piece of Africans to voice anti-colonial feelings and to mobilize support from inside and out side Africa.

Nkwame Nkrumah became the leader o pan - Africanism and in 1958 a conference was help in Ghana to discuss the way forward of African independence.

Ghana became a model to other African countries to emulate. This made many African countries to go for vigorous campaigns for against colonialism and get sovereignty like that of Ghana.

Nkrumah the president of Ghana after independence held all African trade unions in 1959 with the aim to unity all African states into a confederation, such an idea increased momentum for many Africans to fight for independence.

Ghana as an independent country exerted more pressure on French domination on West Africa to stop their excess over the Africans which increased the Africans to demand for self determination.

Pan—Africanism is the expression of desire for African unity; it’s at some time an expression of sense of unity between all people whose ancestors originally came from Africa i.e. the Africa in Africa and the African in the Diaspora. As such assume the common brotherhood of black people every where in North America West Indies. Indeed the birth of the idea.
Back ground
Pan- Africanism had its roots out side Africa because of the descendants of the African the Negro slaves in the new world who felt had been made home less by their transfer to the foreign countries and subjection to alien culture they felt that they did not belong to, they felt themselves as the orphans of Africa, alien and strangers in the world of white people who were chiefly interested in their labour only to work in the plantations and hardly interested at all in their personality as men, they felt to them selves as black out cast robbed of their dignity and with no claim of being of the same value and equal insight of man.

Pan Africanism was founded by William Sylvester Trinidad lawyer in 1900, who convened the first pan Africanist conference there were few representative from Africa but a big number came from America and the west Indies others were tudent from London among them was Dr William E.burghradt Dus Bois an outstanding negro scholar and prolific writer who later became “the father and the prophet of pan Africanism” was born in USA 1868 and died in Ghana 1963 at the ripe old age of 95.

He was the founder of national association for advancement of colored people [NAACP] He also led four pan Africanism conference 1919 in Paris attended with 57 delegates 1921 London and Brussels, in 1923 in Lisbon Portugal and the fourth was in new York in 1927 the massage of all those conferences were that “the habit of democracy should encircle the all world “the emphasis was inter—racialism and justice

The major plan of action for pan Africanism was to bring all the black people of African origin under one umbrella of pan-Africanism i.e. black Africa in the New World and in Africa.

• To unite all black people in the Diaspora and in Africa.
• To liberate African slaves from slavery in the new world in order to make them free citizen
• To improve the economic status of Africa so that they can be equalized with the European people.
• To create awareness among the Africans and instill the sprite of Africanism in them to remove the inferior
     complex of the Africans to Europeans.
• To fight colonialism in Africa so as the African can get their self determination.
• It was also their objective to fight for civil rights of African slaves m the new world like freedom of movement,
    owning property, worship etc.

It brought solidarity, unity among the Africans in their struggle for self determination.

 It led to the formation of OAU/AU a body which was responsible to fight for African countries which were still under colonial domination.

Pan Africanism brought awareness among the Africans to fight for their independence.

Pan Africanism also acted as a body to represent the Africans in world politics.

 Pan Africanism provided leadership in many nationalistic struggles in Africa e.g. Nkrumah who became a leader of pan Africanism;

 Provided moral and financial support to the Africans who were struggling for their independence.

The Manchester conference was the conference that was convened by pan Africanits. It was regarded as a turning point in the history of pans Africanism because of the outcome of the conference which included the following:

It was during the Manchester conference where by the leading participants were no longer Negroes of the new world, but a big number of Africans from home land countries and organizations sent delegates like Nkrumah, Kamuzu Banda, Kenyatta, Peter Abraham Azikiwe was him self prevented from attending the conference but his idea and encouragement were of great importance,

 It was during the Manchester conference that the headquarters of pan Africanism were shifted from America to Africa under the leadership of Nkrumah following the independence of Ghana.

It was in this conference that colonialism was condemned and it was declared that by all means either peaceful or forceful Africans should get their independence. They developed a slogan that “if European for Europeans then Africa is for Africans”.

It was during the Manchester conference that a letter was drafted by the delegates warning all the imperialist countries who were committing excesses to the Africans like king Leopold was seriously warned and asked to stop it.

It was during this conference that demanded education of Africans and progressive participation in African governments.

In this pan African conference it constrained racial consciousness among Africa and removed inferior complex of the Africans to the Europeans in political and cultural values.

It was during the Manchester conference that pan-Africanism drafted a charter demanding the independence and implementation of civil rights in the colonies especially the human rights of the Africans in the colonies.

It was in this conference where all people from African origin demonstrated unity, solidarity and cooperation. This brought awareness and consciousness to the black races to fight for their rights.

It should be noted that, the colonial state did not intend to create a sense of national hood among the colonized people. Its major aim was to undermine all ethnic or regional loyalties. There was very little feeling of national hood among the colonial subjects. Almost every body thought of him self as belonging to a certain ethnic group or region.

The colonialists had different sentiment about granting independence to African states it should be put clear that for the bourgeoisie in the metro pole were interested in maintaining colonial exploitation, but they differed in the best way to do it. They were three types of different opinions how to maintain this among the colonialists.

The liberal who realized that the only way to silence ant colonial struggle was to was through reform of granting flag independence to the colonized subjects thus between 1950 and 1960 liberal government of France and Britain began to grant flag independence. That is why the form of liberation were peaceful

The conservatives thought that maintaining the status-quo was the best way to preserve the capitalist interests, thus when ever these people were in power the question of granting independence to Africa never rose, and this was especially in Portugal thus the form of liberation in such Portuguese colonies were different.

The third opinion was that of the settlers their interest crushed with those of the bourgeoisie in the metro pole. If the neo colonial government, under black skinned leadership, believed that there interest could not be maintained no matter how neo colonialism was. If the worse came to worse they seized power as in case of U.D.I in 1965 in then Rhodesia.

They were four types/methods that Africans applied in their struggle to liberate themselves from the colonial domination,
a) Liberation by constitution/ dialogue/ peacefully.
This involved intensive negotiation between the colonialists and African nationalists e.g. the political independence of Tanganyika, Ghana, Uganda, Zambia etc. all applied negotiation or peaceful means to get their independence.

b)Liberation by revo1ution
This was the type of liberation which involved complete overthrow of the existing political system. This existed in colonies where independence was given to the minority at the expenses of the majority, the case  in point is in Zanzibar where minority Arabs were granted independence by the British which prompted the majority blacks to make a revolution in 1964, and replaced with another new political system that is supported by the masses. It took place even Egypt and Libya. Liberation by revolution is always sudden and involves blood shed.

c) Liberation by armed struggle/arbitration:
This was conducted In the situation where peaceful means failed and the imperialist were reluctant to negotiate or to give independence to the Africans. In such situation the Africans picked up arms to fight the imperialists by force as a method to achieve their independence it involved bloodshed use of guerrilla warfare. For example in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Angola, South Africa, Namibia, Mozambique

d) Combination of constitution and armed struggle:
These liberations combined both methods. Firstly the Africans resorted to armed struggle as a way to achieve their independence and then applied dialogue/peaceful means to solve the problems of their independence, this happened in Kenya and Zimbabwe.

Existence of settler in the colonies that had a number of white settlers like Kenya Zimbabwe where by they had made some developments in form of investment the colonialist were not willing to surrender their wealth to Africans and were not sure of their future incase Africans take over the government, thus giving independence was very difficult. This made the Africans to apply armed struggle as the means of getting their independence

The nature of the colony. Those colonies that were regarded as overseas provinces of the colonial nation and view them as their mandatory land this was mostly to colonial masters like Portugal and France in such cases the colonialist were not ready to grant independence until the African decide to use the barrel of the gun to give independence; therefore armed struggle was the only solution for example in Kenya, Angola, Mozambique and South Africa.

The economic strength of the colony. In those colonies were development was very high and colonial investment was huge like South Africa and Zimbabwe the colonialists were not able to grant independence to the Africans in a peaceful way, the only solution remained to apply forceful means.

 The financial economic position of the colonial power. Many colonies that belonged to Portugal applied armed struggle because Portugal economic position was not good highly depended ion Africa colonies for domestic development so she was un willing to give independence.

The status of the colony those colonies that were under the trust ship of UN managed to achieve their Independence easily through peaceful means because of the pressure from UN and USA, like Tanganyika got her independence early enough than other east African sister nations of Kenya and Uganda, but those who were mandatory colonies could not get their independence so easily thus armed struggle

The minority rule like UDI in Zimbabwe and the white racist regime in SA where by the minority white settlers declared the unilateral independence, in case of Zanzibar where minority Arabs where given independence by the British to the expense of the majority Africans on the islands this also caused armed struggle through a revolution

Existence of peasant cash crops; colonies that had developed peasant cash crops like, Uganda, Nigeria, Ghana, and Tanganyika, achieved their independence through peaceful means, the colonialist could not delay this independence after realizing that they can continue exploiting their resources through neo colonialism and they had nothing to lose in granting independence

The nature of reaction the African had towards the colonialist, also determined the form of liberation, those African societies who were very collaborative to the colonialist and forged class alliance with the colonialist in most cases dialogue or peaceful means were applied to decolonize e.g. in Uganda the Ganda were used as sub imperialist to Other areas of Uganda to spread the colonial rule so independence was through peaceful means in Uganda as to pave. way for the Ganda to dominant other tribes.

Existence Of wealthy especially minerals like gold diamond sliver, industries, well developed social over heads like in south Africa, Kenya, independence could not be given easily why because the colonialist were not ready to leave such wealthy un exploited armed struggle became the only solution’ in case of such situations and on the other side in colonies where development was minimal no infrastructure independence was easily given through peaceful means e.g. in Tanganyika .

It’s true that armed struggle became dominant after 1945 especially in Zimbabwe, Kenya’ Angola, and South Africa etc as compared to other forms of liberation this was due to the following facts that
accelerated the application of armed struggle among such factors include the following,
Military assistance from USSR. After 1945 USSR consolidated her strength to the zenith it was ant-colonialism and a sympathizers to African ant-colonial struggles .It was ready to provide military support and moral to liberate the Africans from colonialism, thus military struggle due to military assistance of USSR.

 Manchester conference. During the Manchester the major agenda of the conference was to liberate Africans by all means peaceful or force, this gave courage to the Africans to use force where the colonialists became reluctant to grant independence.

 Role and influence of the ex soldiers. The war veterans of Second World War came back with military skills which they had acquired during the war it were these skills that encouraged very many African nationalists to apply force to overthrow the colonialists who were not ready to grant independence to Africans.

 The support from U.N Under U.S.A and USSR were ant-colonialism and supported the African nationalist struggle to use all means to get rid of colonialism.

 Failures of other methods. Other methods like peaceful means and constitutional failed, the armed struggle became as the last resort for getting independence from the colonialists.

Impact of India and Pakistan independence. The independence of Asian countries especially Pakistan and India was a big challenge for the Africans to emulate, they used all means including armed struggle to get independence.

Influence of pan Africanism. Especially after shifting her headquarters from the new world to Africa .The plan of action of pan Africanism was to liberate African nations by all means.

The un willingness of the colonial power to grant independence. Especially Portugal and British colonies that , were not willing to grant independence. The Africans resorted the use of force.

Influence of front line states. That provided military and man power support to the ant-colonial struggles in Africa e.g Tanganyika during the struggle in South Africa and Zimbabwe

 Intensive exploitation after world war two. It awakened Africans against the colonialists who had increased exploitation of Africa resources as to revamp their ruined economies, this made Africans to use all means to liberate themselves.

Emergence of cold war after 1945. This was the struggle between USSR and USA, every bloc wanted to win more countries in Africa as to spread their political ideologies of socialism or capitalism, this witnessed the giving up of weapons to fight the colonialists.

Nationalism in Tanzania can be traced as early as the early days of colonial penetration under the Germany rule when they threatened their independence. Thus for example, Abushiri and Bwana Hen, the Zigua led the first resistance against the Germany at the coast in 1888-89, then Mkwawa against the Germany from 1891 tilll898 and finally came the Maji-Maji wars in1905-97.

Although the Eurocentric historians have portrayed the early nationalistic movements as back-word looking, leading their people from modernization and from God-sent blessings of colonialism; recent historiography has revealed continuity between the early leaders of opposition to colonialism and more recent leaders of mass nationalism. About fifty years ago, V.1 Lenin described such resistance as national war or national rebellion. These early resistances showed a symbol o great patriotism. For example Maji-Maji, Mkwawa and Abushiri are hailed as national Heroes in modem Tanzania monuments have been built for their memorials and honors.
During the interwar period some modern nationalistic political parties were formed, namely the TTCSA, TAA, and the TAWCA they developed crucial mass nationalism that begun to agitate for Nationalism after 1945. Of all parties that were started it’s only the TAA that survived the onslaught colonial administration in the interwar period, it kept the nationalistic sentiments in Tanzania a live. In 1945 the TAA political party begun to expand country wide and to campaign for mass support from the rural areas of Tanzania by 1948 the branches grew to 39 and membership had spiraled to 1, 780. It gave birth to the Tanzanian African National Union (TANU) in 1950s mainly urban oriented and trans-tribal in nature and non religious

Tanganyika got her independence in 1961 under the leadership of Mwl. J.K. Nyerere it was the first country in East Africa to get independence. It was formerly a Germany colony but latter alone it was given to Britain under the trust ship of UN. It got her independence through application of diplomacy led by J.K Nyerere and Oscar following the transformation of TAA to TANU in July 7th 1954.

• To struggle for self determination of Tanganyika from the colonial master Britain
To fight for African freedom against the injustice and inequalities of the colonialist
• To promote unity and solidarity among the people of Tanganyika and fight against regionalisms and tribalism.
• To abolish all forms segregations among the masses and to promote development in the of country
• It also aimed at helping the workers to fight their rights through forming trade unions of the workers so as can defend the workers rights.

In Tanganyika there were no European white settlers, like in Kenya and other parts of Africa who were not willing to grant independence to the Africans, because they did not trust them in case they assume power. Tanganyika contained influential minorities of Europeans and Asians. The number involved was not large enough to bring obstacle in the path of national independence only 23,000 European among whom only few hundreds could properly be regarded as settlers and the number of Asians was 87,000.

In Tanganyika internal problems like tribalism and religious differences were very minimal. This was a sovereign advantage over her neighbors, the country’s population was made up with large number of ethnic groups but none of the tribe was large enough unlike the Ganda or the Kikuyu-to offer a serious threat to its neighbors by seizing power at the central and monopolizing jobs and development grants for its own advantage. That would have brought internal disputes struggle or disunity. So it was simple for them to unite the masses for self determination

Tanganyika was not mandatory colony like Uganda or Kenya it was under the trust ship of UN given to Britain. As a trust territory Tanganyika was subjected to measure of supervision by the United Nations. A situation which made it impossible for the British government to entirely disregard pressure exerted by international opinion. Thus the independence of Tanganyika was easily influence by United Nations
Swahili language played a big role to unite various ethnic groups Swahili had came to be widely spoken throughout the country, thus providing Tanganyika with an indigenous lingua franca, an advantage possessed by no other East African nation. It was rather less difficult to build up a sense of national unity in Tanzania than any other East African country.

TANU political party which took over the power lacked serious opposition from other to political parties which would have delayed the independence

 The superb leadership of Mwl J.K Nyerere and Oscar Kambona also played a big role in achieving independence in Tanganyika earlier than other nations he was a simple man approachable democratic with high sprite of patriotism for his nation.

 The effect of Mau-Mau in Kenya prompted governor Richard of Britain to grant independence in Tanganyika immediately fearing that a similar situation may happen also in Tanganyika

Unlike Uganda and Kenya were most of the political parties were very much affiliated to religion and tribes, TANU in Tanganyika had no any religious or tribal attachment it was a party for national unity

In Tanganyika the colonialists did not invest heavily in infrastructures or agriculture which they might have feared to lose, in case Of independence like Kenya were a lot of colonial investment had been invested. And on top of that Tanganyika had been viewed as the most economically back word country the least advanced in the field of education as compared to her sister Nations.

TANU as major political party had never been banned by the colonial government it was able to operate freely with out any hindrance unlike KANU in Kenya. This was very significant in achieving her goals of independence.

The colonial bureaucracy was a stumbling-block, when it came at registering T.A.NU branches national wide. As soon as it was learned that TANU had replaced TAA the legislation governing the operation of political parties was amended aiming at debarring TANU activities, the government technically put a delay tactic in registering the branches of TANU, with the same agenda of checking the spread of TANU and its influences. The colonial government first applied simple repression, banning of TANU activities in disaffected areas and the second tactic which was applied mostly in French colonies was the creation of colonial government sponsored political parties, the United Tanganyika party (U.T.P) designed to up hold the cause of mult-racialism. But both methods proved a failure when the election was held early in 1959. For the thirty members of the legislative council, ten for each race, TANU won an overwhelming victory.

Colonial government sabotage by closing TANU’ s branches and banning its activities .This tactic was used by colonial government to check th influence of TANU e.g. in Sukuma land rural radicalism and TANU activities had given colonial regime threats, after branches were closed of Tanga , Dodoma, Iringa and Kondoa Irangi.

The colonial policy of divide and rule, which wanted to divide the people of Tanganyika on ethnicity lines, e.g the meeting of 1957 Governor Twining attempted to drive division between traditional rulers and members of nationalist movement. This was a very big obstacle for TANU to forge unity between the masses.

The All Muslim National Unity of Tanganyika (AMNUT) was a stumbling block in the path of independence after petitioning to the colonial government to delay the independence of Tanganyika until the education gap between the Moslems and Christians is bridged

The defection of ANC from mainstream TANU, led by Zuberi, Mtemvu, in 1958 in Tabora they defected from TANU and formed their one party, this move to a certain extent it weakened TANU as a party ,this new party was even able to get some legislative council in election of 1958 and 1960 in Tanga and lake Victoria area

The opposition from church missionary society, who barred their followers from involving into active politics that would be regarded as disobedient to the church. This affected very many members of TANU who were Christians.

 Lack of education for most TANU members .The colonial government prohibited the civil servants from joining active politics and were the only small elite who were educate that would have helped the party. Most of the party members were comprised by a big numbers of peasants

Transport and communication structures were too poor to assist TANU in mobilizing the masses in the vast Tanganyika mainland, some roads were impassable during rain season

Lack of political awareness among the masses, most of the followers of TANU was peasants who were in rural areas who, did not know the objectives of the political party and their financial assistance to the party was very minimal

The social structure in the post — slavery Zanzibar society was highly racial based. After the formal abolition of slavery in 1897 the Zanzibar society had just gone into feudal socio economic stratification which based on racial segregation. The British were on top of the hierarchy the Arabs followed the lowest class wares the Africans these were mostly poor and squatters on Arab cloves plantation.

In the next hierarchy after the Europeans were the Arabs, these were sub-sections within the Arab community which included the relatively less, rich shih iris from Yemen and Mangos from Oman ,they ran small business such as shops and other retail trade ventures mostly in rural areas. The Arabs family shared both political, economical and administration powers with the British colonialists. Other Oman clans of high class such as the Mazrui and Miskury they held some decision making position in the local authority administrative network and supervisory roles they dominated the middle ranking administrative load of the civil service. They owned big plantation, real estates and the large business. Arabs of Oman origin were favored by British colonialists and were deliberate given senior administrative posts in to prepare them to run the government after independence; they wanted Zanzibar to develop as an Arab and not as an African state.

The third structure was that of the Indian community which enjoyed the considerable social status and influence. They were big merchants who monopolized the exports and imports of trade. They helped senior economic advisory position in the government and dominated the whole financial sector.
The lowest that of oppressed African majority .These were mostly poor landless peasant who were mostly squatters in Arab owned plantations where they provided cheap labor for their survival .Others were employed as domestic servant in rich Arabs and Indian houses .They were denied access to education that were not given the best employment opportunity the could secure in the civil service.

In the colonial Zanzibar the Africans were next to none in personality they were regarded as inferiors. As some afro- centric historian once lamented in his writings that;
“It is true that Africans were intellectually, morally and personality inferior to the European, Zanzibar Africans just like pendulum clocks who needs constant reminding and reprimands, they have been like children who have been taught Arab manners.
I think it is evident that most of these Africans were and hypocrites” [Robinson R, and Gallagher in Africans and the historians.

The education system was given racial lines to serve the goals of preparing for public administration,
Indian for commercial and financial control Africans for sub service.
More degrading statements were made by the colonialists revealing the mentality concerning Zanzibar
Africans that they were inferior in all aspects to the Europeans and to the Arabs. Example;
Population structure of Zanzibar before independence

Africans made 76% of the Zanzibar population in 1948 non of them owned a plantation of 3000 hectares and more over in education they accounted only 39% of the lower primary education and 3% of secondary education

Africans in Zanzibar by 1964 were immigrants who went there in three phases: during slave trade 1 840-1 870s during colonialism 1891-1963 and during clove harvesting.

These were of the mixed blood [shiraz, Africans and Arabs] .The shiraz Arabs settled in Zanzibar since the 1st century .They came from Persia, Iran and Iraq. The indigenous of Pemba and Unguja before 12th century were black .The Shiraz intermarriage with the black Africans and have mixed blood race .By 1964 the Shiraz identify themselves as; Tumbatu Shiraz and Pemba Shiraz .These were more Arabs in features than Africans and the Hideous —Shiraz who ware more Africans in features than Arabs .They mixed easily with the African race by 1964.

These were few Arabs who immigrated to Zanzibar since 1940.They were the ones who introduced clove plantations and slave trade in the islands of Zanzibar

These few in number and were chiefly merchants who lived in Zanzibar they were allowed to conduct business the by British colonialists to trade in Zanzibar.

The conference involved the government and the opposition parties held at Lancaster House in
London from 20-24 September 1 963.It was agreed that Zanzibar should become full independent 1 0th
December 1963.
On 1 0th December 1963 the British government declared the independence of Zanzibar and handed sovereignty to the sultan hence ensuring Arab domination to the land.
This is how the efforts towards the independence of Africans came to unsatisfactory. Alternative measures had to be taken by the victimized African majority hence the Revolution of 1964.

The Zanzibar revolution is not an isolated incident. It was due the continuous humiliation of the black African ever since the first black was taken on the island as a slave, by definition a political revolution can be defined as a total overthrow of an existing government in any country or state by those who were previously subjected to it. A political revolution may be gradual or sudden. hut the most important of all it should leave ever lasting impact in that particular society, that serves the fundamental difference between a revolution and a mere political change.

British were preparing to decolonize African states thus they allowed the people of Zanzibar to form political parties. Political parties emerged based on races e.g. ZNP Zanzibar Nationalist party for Arabs, African Association for African only, Shiraz Association of Shiraz only later in 1955 Shiraz split into two. Hadimu Afro shiraz party and The Tumbatu shiraz and Pemba peoples party for shiraz only.

The most likely immediate causes of the revolution of the Zanzibar revolution were numerous that included the humiliative manner the Arabs treated the Africans who were taken as slaves despite the factor that were the majority in the islands of Zanzibar but the most touching was the three failures of the people of Zanzibar to get the government they wanted, created disenchantment with constitution means. The decision of the old regime, only three weeks after a new constitution came into effect, to begin suppressing the opposition, seemed to prove there was no hope to change through lawful means.

Before independence 1963 there were three elections
Period         A.S.P     Z.N.P     Z.P.P.P
Jan1961     40%     35%     17%
June 1961     49%     35%     13%
July 1963     54%     20%     16%
But the British wanted to hand over independence to the majority privileged race [Arabs] on 12/12/1963 Z.P.N became a ruling party and Sultan was made head of state. The A.S.P members the majority regarded that independence as an Arab independence. The A.S.P had tried to bring democratic majority by the use of ballot box without success, the only alternative was the revolution.

Within a month after the Arab independence of 12/12/1963 new Arabs government introduced oppressive measures which included the following; All African schools were closed down and therefore all African teachers were ordered to leave Zanzibar. A.S.P was banned and leaders escaped to Dar –es- Salaam before being arrested, African trade unions were banned. All policemen from the mainland were dismissed and expelled from Zanzibar The new government recruited new policemen within a month.

Due to the above factors A.S.P leaders organized the revolution in Dar- es- Salaam with the assistance of Okello a Ugandan from northern Uganda who had migrated in Zanzibar during colonial; era, as a colonial worker. He captured the armory at Zanzibar city with the assistance of other woifkers of African origin in Zanzibar and main land Tanganyika using ordinary weapon and managed to over throw the Arab minority regime.

Economic Marginalization of the African majority, Africans were mainly squatters who made, a living by selling their labor to the landlords and subjected to extreme exploitation Africans had no access to the major means of production Economic inequality, on the Arabs owned land, the Indians controlled finance, the Europeans controlled trade, the Africans owned nothing such a situation made the revolution necessary to occurred.

Zanzibar an African or Arab state? The revolution was also caused by the desire of Arab rulers and British colonialists to make Zanzibar an Arab state in 1962 which the majorities African were not ready to be Arab rise on their own African soil thus the revolution.

 Deprivation of black African from Education. Despite the government’s role to provide suitable elementary education for all people, the Africans continued to suffer from inequality of education system. They were not catered like the other races which made them unsatisfied with the regime thus the revolution

Segregation in the other social services. Africans were also segregated in health services, housing and water supply. Even in civil services African hold lower ranks unlike the Arabs and the Indians

Deception Africans were divided along the lines of religion .Z.P.P campaign slogan used to call Africans to join Z.N.P because they claimed that the party was recognized by God.

Cultural and religion It was the Arab culture and religion that became dominated and recognized from that of the African culture and religious beliefs.

Act of intimidation After unexpectedly loosing the 1957 election to Z.N.P it decided to employ various act of intimidation to force Africans to join them i.e. the 1958 strikes at the docks led to mass uprising It initiated a strong campaign against them

Segregation in the social Association As the wind of struggle for political independence which was in full in the continental African swept the island Zanzibar in the mid 1950.The social association underwent complex transformation into political parties .Africans were opposed politically by the ruling class.

The emergence of John Okello from northern Uganda who settled in Zanzibar in 1952 and worked periodically as painter he was an official of ASP of Pemba island he joined a revolutionary army in 1961 he played a big role in over throwing the Arab regime.

Poor working condition and low wages of Africans after 1963 that could not make them to meet their basic needs of life and despite that were heavily taxed by the Arab government.

The disunity within the ruling party of Z.N.P gave the revolutionists to capitalize on it and managed to attain easy success

 The poor political organization and weak military, structures of the Arabs also paved way for the revolution to occur.

The good organization and plan of the leaders of the revolution who kept their secret with out breaching it that caught the Arab government by surprise

The role played by general Okello a man with great determination skilled tactician this helped him to organize the revolution with few ill equipped military men that managed to over throw the Arab government

 The taking by storm of the Zinawi armory and police station at Mtoni also accelerated the revolution to success

 The fact that the revolution took place took place when the government officials and leaders of the regime were busy with Ramadan festival it enabled the revolution to be successful

Having seized power with an astonishing ease, Okello and his associate were confronted with the task of forming a government. They decided to form a “revolutionary council” made up of prominent members not only from the Afro-Shiraz party but also of the Umma the recently founded, partly Arab party which was emphatically Marxist in its policy statements.

Soon afterwards Okello disappeared from the scene and Abedi Karume, the veteran leader of the ASP, who was to die at the hands of mysterious assassins eight years later, emerged as the dominant personality in the island. The revolutionary government rapidly announced the number of progressive measures which included the following.

Three months after the revolution the revolutionary council agreed to the establishment of a union government with the neighboring Tanganyika to be known as the United Republic of Tanzania.
The nationalization of land and the distribution of three acre plot to the Africans. The Arab land owners were forcibly asked to surrender African land for distribution it to the majority blacks. About 10,000 Arabs more than one-fifth were expelled from the island.

It brought dignity to Africans. As a result of the revolution the ruling class of Zanzibaris ceased to exist in the island, Africans were treated as equal citizens with all rights like the of Arabs.

Free education and health care to all the people with out segregation posts in government civil service previously monopolized by arabs or Asians were opened up to Africans; and the wages of the lowest-paid workers were increased sometimes as much as three times.

Scientific socialism was introduced in Zanzibar which brought some social development. The revolutionary council turned to communist countries particularly to East Germany and China. Problem of development were tackled more vigorously than they had been under the easy regime of British.

The formation of parastatal enterprises e.g., The peoples’ Bank of Zanzibar, The state fuel and power corporation, BIZANJE-The corporation which had the responsibility of managing the import trade and distribution of essential commodities such as food textile building materials and other capital and commerce goods, The Zanzibar state trading corporation [ZSTCJ which had the responsibility of managing the export trade in cloves, coconuts, and other primary products.

 It brought majority rule in Zanzibar where by the majority Africans were able to take over the political control of the island.

Racial segregation ended and brought unity to all the masses without any sort of segregation.

Namibia then called South West Africa was first colonized by Germany up to the end of first world war after which it was handed over to South Africa from 1919 at the Versailles Treaty peace treaty .As it happened in many other Africans countries the inhabitants of Namibia ware mainly; Nama, Herero, and Ovambo did not accept foreign domination so easily. The Nama and Herero were farmers they resisted against German in     1904 -7 but even before that, they did not succeed because of internal disunity.

After world war one Namibia remained officially united nation Trust territory, though occupied and ruled by South Africa ever since the southern army had conquered the Germany colonialist in 1915. but south African government reused refused to honor terms of the trust and prepare the country for independence. It treated largely-desert territory of Namibia (South West Africa) as a fifth province of South Africa aüd applied to her people all oppressive legislation of apartheid.

Politically characterized movements were first observed in 1957 when Harman Taivo Jo Tolvo from the Ovambo land People Organization [O.P.O]. It was aimed at achieving better working conditions; it gave rise to the beginning of more powerful and political conscious party. The South-West African peoples’ organization [S.W.A.P.O] In 1960 SWAPO began a long campaign of guerilla activities against the occupying forces of South Africa . Since then SWAPO have been playing a big role up to the attainment of independence in 1990 after three decades of struggle.

Imperialists’ interest over the country e.g. Namibia was the chief producer of uranium as the important source of nuclear fuel, Namibia was made a home of capitalist investment of the big powers Britain and U.S.A. South Africa based mining companies systematically stripped the country of its vast natural minerals resources, that were very significant in developing the capitalist nations of Europe and USA, thus reluctance in granting independence to Namibia.

The question of SWAPO liberation movement organizing its guerrilla warfare from exile [under Sam Nujoma] has been another problem for the independence of the nation it brought disunity among the masses which delayed the struggle of independence in Namibia.

The presence of Cuban troops in Angola to keep peace. South Africa used that as an excuse to continue staying in Namibia that she could not withdrew her troops from Namibia due to the threats of Cuban troops that may take over Namibia to a communist state, so South Africa has been insisting on conducting election under her own supervision.

 The presence of opposition parties such as the Turnholla Democratic alliance whose members were whites and their African puppets, were a big obstacle in the path of independence for Namibia.

U.N weakness to force South Africa out of Namibia, as it was always differed by VETO power of 5 permanent members like USA, Britain and France. Most of them had economic interests in the colony.

Nature an4 character of colonialism in Namibia. It was under Germany and then latter alone given to British South Africa under the supervision of United Nations This made it difficult for the nationalist to have consistency in their struggle.

Tribalism, there was no effective strong political party for Africans that would champion peaceful means.

Failure of imperialist powers to observe the united nations economic sanctions against the illegal white minority rule led by Ian Smith.

Freedom and democracy in South Africa are the impact of life that has been fought for by Africans
inside and outside South Africa for long time. However the attainment of freedom in South Africa had remained at a remote Like most of the colonies that had white settlers the road to independence was not all smooth.

In South Africa white settlers were 4 million by 1970 who ruled the majority blacks who were 20 million and the mixed race of the Asian race origin were 2 million, the black majority were not allowed to vote by 1936 for fear of dominating political aspect of South Africa South Africa was the most powerful nation in the continent economically socially and politically that strength originated from mineral revolution of 1 87Oand 1 880s given that prosperity the white minority were more than ready not to let the black major to take over power.
In 1 950s they established an apartheid policy which literally mean separateness that would keep the black away from dominance of South African politics they remained in reserves known as Bantustan they were only free when serving white in urban centre , the policy reduced the life style of the African blacks.

The population registration act of 1950 registered people according to their race dividing them basically into white and non white under the old imperial principle of divide ad rule non white were sub divided into colored (mixed race) Indians who came as contractors in the sugar plantation at Natal in the l9 century and the ‘Bantu’ who were the black majority population. The blacks were then further divided into further sub groups basing on ethnic origin Zulu, Xhosa, Tswana, Venda, Sotho and so on this was deliberate move to weaken African unity and destroy any African national sense of nationalism, it kept each ethnic group separate from another this act formed the corner stone of the apartheid policy affecting all the life style of the black people banning sexual relation among the races and prohibiting them from public places like bus parks, schools, hospitals, etc all black African trade unions activity were banned thus enabling the white to exploit the African as they wished this was an economic system to keep the black at the position of permanent subordinate of low — paid working class.

Such state of affair provided stimulus to African protest and resistance in South Africa. There was a wave of resistance to new pass laws, a number of spontaneous strikes boycotts and demonstrations in the towns the ANC (African national congress) which had been formed in 1912 by the educated African elites of teachers’ clerks, and lawyers was boosted by the new leader of Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo and Trade unionist Walter Sisulu. In 1952 ANC staged a ‘defiance campaign’ deliberately defying apartheid segregationist laws and refusing to carry passes.

On 21 march 1 960 police opened fire on un armed black demonstrators killing 69 and wounding 180 most of them short behind as they fled, this was known as the Sharpeville massacre which marked a new phase in the struggle for freedom. Fearing a revolution the government swiftly banned the ANC party and many members of the party were arrested and jailed. The ANC resorted to the use of armed struggle as the way forward.

The presence of imperialist investment in South Africa had continues cooperation between big capitalist powers ever since which included powers like Dutch and British with the apartheid regime of South Africa so they were not willing to grant independence to African easily.

 Lack of unity among the nationalist organization .There were many movements working independently, they included the Indian National Congress [IAC], African people organization [APO], Pan African Congress [PAC] UMSA, ANO ,and Inkatha Freedom Movement. These except ANC were less radical they could not bring any impact but rather weakened the strength of the struggle

South Africa was the country that was recognized by UN to be independent country from 1980 . But the fact was that because both political and economic power were in the hands of whites ,worse still there was apartheid that did not able the African excess to economic power the blacks were denied democracy

All liberation movements like ANC and PAC were declared illegal and banned in South Africa by the apartheid regime of the white. The killing of prominent political activities like mass killing in Sharpeville and the imprisonment of Nelson Mandela also made the struggle for independence to delay.

Methods of struggle were weak initially, until 1960s ANC and PAC were using non violent based on Mahatma Gandhi philosophy e.g. demonstrations petition strikes and boycotts .It was until 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre that ANC formed UMKONTO WE SIZWE meaning the spear of the nation and adopted violence.

 The big powers of western Europe feared that an independent south Africa may fall in the hands of Russia a communist nation this was because Mozambique and Angola who ere geographically near South Africa had the elements of communism opposed to the situation. Thus the struggle lacked international support of the big capitalist countries.

On addition to the above the constant indiscriminant attacks earned out by the racist white regime of South Africa destabilized the activities of national struggle of the black Africans, their major purpose was to kill the nationalists of the blacks and destroy their political parties.

Economic constraints most of the black African were pushed in the reserves of Bantustan were economic activity were very hard the land was barren no infrastructures to facilitate the activities of the movement thus it took long to achieve their independence.

Some capitalist countries who were pro the racist regime of south Africa denied economic aid to front line states i.e. those states that were ready to support the struggle of liberation in South Africa which included Tanzania Kenya Zimbabwe among others.

The possession of Namibia by South Africa racist regime, which was used by her as naval base and harbored the American French and British military men, hindered the military wing of the nationalistic movement.

Portugal had three colonies in Africa which included; Angola, Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde, and Mozambique. These countries attained their independence late as compared to other African countries; the Portuguese government was therefore determined not to give independence to these nations because were seen as vital props to the Portuguese economy.

Also the Africans of the Portuguese colonies were equally determined to win there independence
thus prolonged guerrilla struggle began throughout the Portuguese colonies the lead was taken by a
smallest colony of Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde, led by Amilcar Cabral, he founded the (P.I.G.C)
portido africano, da independence da guinea Cabo Verde in 1956 but He was assassinated in January
1976 only two years after the independence of 1974.

In Angola Agustino Neto led guerrilla struggle against the Portuguese after founding M.P.L.A (Movemento popular de libertagao de Angola) in December 1956 in Luanda among the working class, and were able to get there independence in 1975.

The struggle for Mozambique was led by Eduardo Mondlane and his deputy Samora Machel after founding FRELIMO (Frente de Libertacao de Mozambique) found in 1962 in the capital of Tanzania Dar- es- salaam they declared war officially in September 1964.

Poor/weak economic base of Portugal. She was the poorest country among the colonialists, she had not Under gone industrial revolution, therefore she regarded the heavily depended on her colonies for economic prosperity at home that is why she was very reluctant at granting independence to her colonies, which she viewed like committing economic suicide

The Portugal colonial policy Portugal regarded her colonies s overseas provinces since Portugal was a small nation, she was very interested to acquiring more oversea land whereby they could stay forever and obtains raw materials exploit market for their goods and settlement of surplus population.

Settlers opposed the granting of independence to the Africans .The number of settlers were in big in numbers in many Portuguese colonies with high investment in agriculture and other economic ventures in the colonies. They therefore feared economic losses once the black majority takes over power

The Portuguese exploited the Africa maximally as to support their economy in the metro pole such as, imposed harsh taxes like dog, tax poll tax, this was great economically to them that’s why they hesitated to grant independence to the African early like other European nation.

Land alienation .All African fertile land was taken and known as crown land, it was confiscated for the construction of infrastructures, establishment of colonial economies establishment of white plantation, and this was too precious to them to give independence to the African easily.

Mass illiteracy. Many Portuguese were illiterate and hence conservative and ignorant of what was taking place outside world .Other European nations had changed their way of exploitation to neo-colonialism. Since Portuguese were short sighted they never dreamt of granting independence to their colonies soon, such situation prompted the use of armed struggle for the African as a means to get their independence.

Zimbabwe was a British settler colony. The constitutional of 1923 gave special political power to the minority white settlers at the expense of the Africans majority .Throughout the colonial period the minority white settlers used various efforts to establish political dominance, e.g. Creation of central African federation 1953 to 1963 with the intention of placing Malawi and Zambia under political and control of white minority settlers of Zimbabwe to hinder nationalism.

In November 1965 Ian Smith, leader of new white Rhodesia front party, a unilateral declaration of independence (UDI).He thereby illegally declared white-ruled Rhodesia to be independent state, free from any British colonial control. The British government protested but little effective action was taken to stop it. It was clear to the leaders of ZANU that their, commitment to armed struggle was indeed the only way forward.

The international community declared a policy of economic sanctions against the illegal Smith regime. But South Africa and Portugal colonies like Mozambique ignored the instruction and continued to trade with Zimbabwe even British multinational oil companies secretly continued to trade with Rhodesia.

Land alienation by the British colonialist that were given to the white settlers and the African remained with totally nothing for there live hood apart from supplying cheap -labor in the white settler plantations

Zimbabwe whites declared U.D.I 1965 by Ian Smith this left the black majority with no any other alternative apart from using armed struggle.

Forced labor to work in the white plantation this humiliated the African very much that made them to use armed forces to fight it.

Richness of Zimbabwe, especially in minerals and rich agricultural land which attracted whites and made them not willing to grant independence to the African, thus application of armed struggle.

Failure of whites to agree to the peaceful means, to grant independence to the African.

Taxation also prompted the black majority to use force as the way to stop the excessive taxation system of the colonialists.

Imperialist powers supported the whites’ minority over the black majority.

Tribalism, there was no effective strong political party for Africans that would champion peaceful means.

Failure of imperialist powers to observe the united nations economic sanctions against the illegal white minority rule led by Ian Smith.

The struggle for independence in Kenya after the Second World War was difficult. All peaceful attempts and diplomatic methods had failed to regain their alienated land .Attempts by the young kikuyu associations had all failed. British thinking about its colonial policy in Kenya was complicated further by the presence of settlers, it considered that some alternative should be found to the normal one-man one-vote democracy; if not the white settlers were not sure of their future in case the majority African take political power, the white settlers suggested multiracial type of constitution

No doubt that the kikuyu people had exceptional grievance to strike a rebellion at that particular time, one of the major reason for that was the fact that their number had grown steadily throughout the colonial period and yet their land into which they would have expanded on was occupied by settlers.

In face of land shortage large number of Kikuyu was driven to seek inadequately paid jobs in towns or else in European farms. In towns many were unemployed and took to living by crime. These poverty stricken and land-hungry people looked with understandable envy and resentment upon the settlers

This led to the outbreak of MAUMAU which was guerilla warfare 1951 .It started with the murder of few British farmers their cattle were mutilated and doing other acts of violence. All these act of violence were intended to instill such terror into the settler community that most would leave the country. The colonial government responded by arresting Jomo Kinyatta and other well-known Kikuyu leaders. They were charged for organizing the revolts and condemned to long terms of imprisonment.

The absence of Kinyatta from the scene did not affect the resistance, the Mau-Mau remained active and resorted to impenetrable bases in mountain Kenya and Nyandarua range. From these forests they ventured forth in small bands in the dead of night to swoop on outlying farms, to attack the soldiers who had been sent against them, and very frequently to take bloody reprisals against fellow Kikuyu suspected of co-operating with the colonial government. At the end of 1955 the back of the uprising had been broken at the cost of 20 million pounds and some hundred British lives. 

Taxation, land alienation and forced labor annoyed Africans this was seen as total humiliation of the white against the Africa blacks. Who became squatters on their own land most of them ended up going in urban centers were they were unemployed and living on crimes

Missionary interference in kikuyu traditions such as female genital mutilation, and indoctrination of western values like religion, education. While condemning the African traditions and culture as satanic practice that are not permitted to God

Depriving Africans the right to grow cash crops, which only the white settlers were given the monopoly role to grow and market such cash crops leaving African with to provide cheap and V manual labor in European plantations.

The role of the returned soldiers who could not find jobs which they were promised when they were taken in the Second World War.

The presence of Kenya setters who thought Kenya was  their .permanent territory. Were not willing to let Kenya go into the hands of the black African political leaders, such sentiment prompted the Kikuyu people to up guns
Kenya eventually got her independence in l963 under the leadership of Jomo Kenyatta of KANU, becoming the last country in East Africa to get her independence. KANU provided a country with the ruling group of great ability. Within a year of independence the opposition party KADU had gone into voluntary dissolution, its members deciding either to retire from politics or to join the ruling ranks.

But it proved impossible to maintain the structure of one party-state. In O1966 Ogiga Odinga after Kenyatta the most powerful politician broke with his old associate and formed a new political party the Kenya peoples’ union. He opposed Kikuyu domination in the politics, him being Luo many his followers were his tribesmen. He also opposed KANU ideological approach of handling the Kenyan problems. he favored the radical approach.

In sharp contrast to situation in Tanzania the Kenya government policy had encouraged the growth of
a class of local capitalists whose new acquired wealthy contrasted sharply with the poverty of the high
growing unemployed urban population. That was-the starting point of Kenyan income inequality.

The unwillingness of the colonial power to grant independence. Some European nations came in Africa to stay for ever and regarded their African colonies as oversea provinces, thus they were very reluctant to grant independence this was mostly on Portuguese colonies like Mozambique, Angola.

 The colonial state apparatus ware very oppressive and coercive to the nationalistic movements in many Africa nations these included colonial army, police and judicially/prison which were put in place to facilitate colonial production, e.g. in 1958 Nyerere was arrested, Kenyatta was also arrested in I954, Mutesa of Buganda was exiled to Britain.

Also there was lack of political structures to mobilize the people to the common struggle for independence; in rural areas most of the political parties lacked branches which would have been used as centers to create awareness and mobilization of the masses most of the nationalistic activities centered in urban areas.

Tribalism also was a problem in for the nationalistic struggle it brought disunity and weakened the nationalistic struggle for independence. Some tribes did not participant in national struggle in steady they involved secessionist politics, e.g. Buganda in Uganda which demanded for her separate independence at the expense of the entire nation of Uganda.

The low level of education also affected the struggle for independence many masses in Africa were not educated and lacked political awareness about the essence of their independence this was a big hindrance in the path of independence since most of the indigenous did not know the significance of the struggle.

 Financial problem to meet their expenditure, nationalistic movement in Africa lacked clear source of funds since most of their members were financially sick to fund the activities of the struggle like mobilization for support from the masses for independence.

Poor infrastructure especially in up country, during the movement of the nationalistic to mobilize support and sensitizing the masses about their aim it was very difficulty to penetrate in other regions during rainy season like southern Tanzania, because there was no railway roads ports etc.

Internal disputes and insecurity also brought a hindrance in the way of independence e.g. tribal wars regional imbalance

The policy of divide and rule that were established by the colonialist played a big role in making African not united some Africans were favored while others were not cared by the colonialist this made national struggle very difficulty.

A religious difference was also another problem .e.g. For Tanganyika to attain her independence the AMNUT all Muslim national union of Tanganyika. Were not willing Tanganyika to be given their independence until a Muslim candidate is graduated to take over the government.

The colonial tactics to divide and rule, that kept African divided were always at loggerhead that kept them divided along tribal lines e.g. the Gandas in Uganda were favored to other tribes that made the Ganda to be reluctant to support the struggle for independence.




In 1960 many African states began to achieve their political independence which generally has been referred to as “flag independence” despite the fact that African got their political independence, still African remained under indirect penetration of foreign domination, politically, socially, economically and militarily. The political independence had little impact on the life style of the masses that’s why it has been referred to as “ceremonial independence” or “flag independence”.

The political independence was largely characterized with political and social economic problems legacy of colonialism, i.e. the problems were inherited from the colonial economy and colonialism, such problems included mass illiteracy of the masses, poverty, tribalism, poor infrastructures etc

The real political legacy of colonial government in Africa was that of an alien dictatorship, benevolent at times, but always prepared to crush outspoken opposition. Many of African leaders had suffered periods of detention without trials for daring to speak out against the unjust and arbitrary nature the government.

What’s flag independence?
Flag independence this refers to the type of Independence that the Africa nations attained during their struggles in 1960s 70s and 80s from their colonial masters; it was just ceremonial independence of hoisting the national flags and bringing down the colonial flags. But still African remained victims of foreign domination in all spheres of life, Political economical and socially remained dependant to their former ‘colonial masters, and at times it’s referred to as Neo colonialism.

Surely no substantial changes ever took place in terms of pre- existing production relation and ownership of the major means of production. The independence constitution merely cemented the exploitative social relation, it’s in this context that one may view the independence achieved as mere “flag independence”. The territory economy remained tied to the former metropolitan state and international capital.

It leads dependence syndrome where by the country will depend largely from their former colonial masters for any development programmes.

It leads to the rise of puppet or sycophant leaders in the government who aim at serving and appeasing the colonial masters, but not to serve the interests of their people.
Absence of national culture and national identity, where by the foreign culture largely Influence the culture of people like education dressing and even table manners.

The constitution was written by the experts in the colonial government and then brought in the metropolitan parliament to approve.
Western model of politics with all ceremony and formality is followed in the territory like mult-party system democracy was to be included in the national constitution.

Absence of real political sovereignty in the sense that most of the political polices are made by the former colonial masters there is always political interference and sabotage from foreign countries.

Weak and small military machinery since most of the military assistance come from former colonial masters.

During the period of self government the colonial administrators reserved to themselves control of strategic areas these included the armed forces, finances and international relations.

Most of the African states immediately after independence faced numerous problems. The problems that most African nations faced since independence have, very largely, been the product of their history. The root of many African current problems in final decades of the twenties century are to be found in the period of colonial rule of the pervious eighty years or more. That were generated and inherited from colonial rule. Some of the problems included the following.

A. Political problems
They left a highly centralized administration system where by the central leader has got a lot of power in the state in most cases this power was vested in the traditional leaders or kings in case of British colonies, Such a system of administration has proved a failure and produced many inefficient leaders, incompetence, unnecessary bureaucracy and misdirection in administration.

They left limited trained African man powers to carry out the administration. The majority of Africans were uneducated or totally illiterates barely 10% were educated by the time of independence in sub -Saharan Africa that

The military structure was organized in the way that it was not separated from the political administration that’s why most of the independent African states experienced numerous coup de-tat. Where by military juntas took over the political arena

The colonialist planted tribalism among the Africans as to maintain disunity during colonialism, but this was inherited even in the period of post independent African, divide and rule policy was given priority. Most of the Africa nations with multi-party system political parties were based more upon the personal ethnic or regional origin of a particular politician than upon differing economic ideologies to guide the country’ s future development.

The boundaries left by the colonialist were mostly totally artificial. They had been created at the whim of European politicians with little regard for Africa’s multitude of pre-colonial nation state and stateless villages and communities, divided various ethnic groups into boundaries in other words natural African borders were abolished and artificial ones were formed. The artificial boundaries caused a problem of ‘national’ unity after independence.

They introduced foreign administration structure where by foreigners especially the whites ware involved in the running of the colony. In the post independent African state the most important sectors like finance Military and national planning remained in the hands of foreigners.

B. Economical and Social Problems
The colonial government let Africa with the mounting economic crisis that had been the end- product of eighty year of colonial is rule. The African economies had been directed towards exporting cheap agriculture raw materials and unprocessed minerals to Europe and in return importing relatively expensive manufactured goods, thus an economic crisis.

They left inadequate Social infrastructures especially transport net work schools medical centers and imbalanced regional development. The infrastructures that were left were inadequate for the continental internal development, they were virtually no regional roads or rail links between one region from another which would promote internal trade most of the railway had been developed around the turn of the century to ease the export of continent wealthy to Europe. By the time of independence the few structures that had been built were badly in need of repair.

African government inherited two particularly repressive economic policies from their colonial predecessors; poll tax and agricultural marketing boards. The former was charged on all adults males regardless of their income. The latter paid fixed low prices to farmers, while selling their products for higher prices abroad keeping the difference as government revenues. Both repressive policies were retained by the post independent African nations

Created of economic stratification in the society i.e. the peasants who lived in rural areas were the majority living in miserable poverty their major economic activity being agriculture which fetched low prices that made their surviving ore difficulty by the time of independence around 95% of the population depended on agriculture for survival and the petty bourgeoisie/working class who lived towns in good standard of living.

They left a highly dependant economy, where by the post independent African states produced raw material for their former colonial master and consumed finished goods from the metro pole. This promoted the unfavorable terms of trade that led to indebt of many post independent African nations.

They left Avery small industrial sector by ensuring that Africa remain de- industrialized and prepare it as potential market for European finished goods.

They introduced traditional cash crops in Africa which were monoculture to become the source of foreign earner from the metropole.

Created cultural dependence by distorting of African culture and establishment of foreign culture. Where by African values and culture were destroyed and de-campaigned by the colonialists. Dress language eating manners religion were adopted and inferior complex was instilled to the Africa always to despise their culture and customs This created disunity among the Africans.

Mass poverty many Africans are living below the international poverty line surviving s on less than one dollar a day this mass poverty was caused by colonialism were by African were denied to participant in meaningful economic activities apart from providing cheap labor. But the most important is the fall in world commodity prices for Africa principle agriculture export in the mid 1 960s. Manufactured imports which Africa had depended on relatively became more expensive poverty in post independent Africa has been also contributed much by African new political masters to do much beyond enriching themselves, ignoring the majority peasant to live abject poverty.
Mass illiteracy many African are unable to read or to write this was due to inadequate educational centers provided by the colonialists, the colonial education was segregative, and it was only children of the chiefs that were given priority. By the time o independence less than 10 % of Africans were fully educated most were in rural areas were they could not get access to proper education.

Tribalism and nepotism are some o the major problems that are facing the post independent African states these were sown deliberately as a move of the colonialist to favor some tribes and leave others un developed, as to divide and rule. Even some political parties were built on the lines of ethnic groupings. A politician was supported not because he possessed good national policies but because he belonged to a certain ethnic group.

Lack of political administrators that has witnessed corruption misdirection of the state and incompetence of some African leaders very few African were highly educated to provide quality administrative services, most of the Africans lacked skills of administration and political will to help their people. Indeed it has been argued that within some African countries that the educated elites in the post independent Africa era had in practice done little more than replace white colonial rulers with ‘black colonial rulers!’

Internal disputes that generated due to various political ideologies that made African nations to go to internal wars this was especially socialism vs. capitalism. Most African nations begun to abandon capitalism and multi-partism system of administration they went on one party state as to bring national unity. But this led to the suppression of opposition, detention dictatorship that accelerated civil conflict in the states

Boundary disputes, the natural boundaries were not considered by the colonialist when partitioning Africa this generated disputes afterwards. The artificial of national boundaries caused serious problems of National unity after independence. Various tribes were divided by colonial bounders e.g. Luo in Kenya and Tanzania the Haya in Uganda and Tanzania.

Lack of enough social infrastructures the colonialists constructed very few social infrastructure to serve colonial production, according to their needs in places were there was no colonial production ware ignored.

Foreign interference in internal affaires, the post independent African nations have not been free or independent as its always portrayed, former colonial masters have always influenced the state especially through Neo colonialism were by the former colonial master always tend to influence the political arena economic and social aspect of African nations.

Foreign debt from outside especially European nations this has been acquired especially from World bank and IMF with high interest rates, that makes it impossible to be paid back and to service it.

Military coup d’ c-tat this was because the military was not separated from the political system many African states experienced military rule. Most of the French speaking countries apart from Senegal Guinea and Cote’d’ivoire, went over to military rule during the 1 960s. Togo and Dahomey (renamed Benin in 1974) suffered frequent military coups and counter-coups. From November 1965 coup followed coup with frightening regularity taking Nigeria and Ghana in early 1966. By the early I 970s military rule had became a serious Africa political option. It remained the most frequent means for change of government through the 1970s and 1980s.

Corruption has become very rampant in many post independent African states especially south of the Sahara, the political leaders like, government ministers, some civil servants and other branches of minority educated elite are becoming increasingly wealthier. Through corruption, like embezzlement of public funds, office abuse, bribes misusing of public funds etc. The income gap between the rural based poor and the urban civil servants is increasing day by day in the post independent African states.

Lack of political awareness and sensitization due to mass illiteracy among the masses tend not to know their political rights and responsibility. They have been vulnerable to political manipulation and abuse due to their ignorance of political responsibility.

Existence of diseases like Malaria which kills 2 out of 5 infants and also aids has proved a problem to the post independent African nations. Many post independent African nations have failed to come out with political and social solution to the menace

Lack of strong economic base agriculture has been dominant as the major economic activity, but their yield has been always very low and price fluctuation is too much. Since colonialism African economies were directed towards exporting primary goods which fetched low prices and based on imported finished European goods that were costly to purchase.

Natural calamities like floods volcano eruption famine storms epidemics etc. These natural calamities are partly blamed on poor planning and lack of foresighted political leaders accompanied with political will to serve the masses

Religious differences it brought disunity and internal disputes like in Nigeria, and Sudan Muslims fight Christians and many are killed in such crushes.

To alleviate poverty in Africa can be solved by, increasing income for every family/home. This can be solved by increasing employment opportunities to the masses as to increase their purchasing power, by providing free and subsidized basic necessities to reduce the expenditure of the masses which may include medical, school fees, and food.

To create a government of democracy and transparency whereby corruption can be checked and lavish government expenditure should be checked and be stopped.

Equal distribution of national cake by stopping nepotism whereby it’s only few people of one tribe or one region that dominate the government and enjoy sweet jobs, equal representation should be in place to all regions and tribes in the government jobs.

To elect capable leaders who are patriotic and able to care for their people, with good economic plans for development of the people.

To provide basic education and technical education to the masses so as they can solve the problem of unemployment and engage into serious economic ventures/business. This calls for revising national syllabus which trains job seekers instead of job Creators.

Get rid of neo-colonialism and develop an independent self sustaining economy which would help to solve the problem of Africa without foreign intervention.

To diversify our economy from agricultural based to be both industrial and agricultural as to create link between these two major sectors .What we produce can be used as raw materials in industries and industrial product can be purchase/consume by the agricultural sector. This will increase the market base and solve the problem of poverty.

To promote national unity among the masses through one party system so as to avoid many party systems that may bring divisions among the masses, and also national languages should be promoted as to forge unity of the people:
Introduction of national education that is based on the environment of Africa and needs as to avoid the colonial education that produce white collar job seekers instead of job creators, this definitely will solve the problem of mass unemployment.


During the struggle for independence many African states had developed multiparty politics as a system to prepare them for independence; it was encouraged by the colonial masters as their pass for independence. E.g. in Tanganyika there were T.A.A and T.A.N.U. in Uganda they were U.P.C, D.P, and K.Y. However from 1960-1970s many African states begun to reject multi-party parliamentary system as unworkable. They pleaded the particular circumstances of their country’s crying to unite in order to achieve rapid national development in social and economic. By the late 1 980s only Botswana with its low population of one million people had maintained unbroken record of multi- party democracy since independence. But almost all post independent African states had switched to one part system.

To promote unity and solidarity among the Africans under one party system after having been disunited on political lines by the colonialist, e.g. C.C.M in Tanzania, U.P.C in Uganda K.A.N.U in Kenya emerged as single party. The argument in favor o one party system was that parliamentary opposition based on multi party democracy bases upon ethnic regional interest was destructive rather than constructive opposition.

To avoid political opposition of other parties immediately after independence which would hamper national development since the African masses were politically novice with the new political system of multi-parties at that particular time.

To avoid civil wars among Africans since they were politically inexperienced immediately after independence. And multi-party politics was viewed as a tool to divide the masses basing on their ethnic origin that in the long run may result into civil conflicts, where by every tribe or region struggling to dominant political power. For example in Rwanda and Burundi were the ethnic Tutsi fight ethnic Hutu to control political power.

To avoid imperialist influence on local politics, through passing in other political opposition parties. Multi-party politics also was avoided as one of the method for not allowing foreign influence into local politics especially the former colonial power who still wanted to control their former colonies through third party.

To eradicate poverty and ignorance and diseases this can be well dealt with less than one party system, thus promoting national development by avoiding useless political rivalry of multi-party politics.

To promote good governance by checking on corruption .and misallocation of public funds, in some one-party states such as Tanzania and Zambia, election showed that unpopular government ministers could indeed be voted out of office. But the awful lot depended upon the political integrity of the party leader and his ability to control the enthusiasm of local party member. But in some states one party system led to abuse of state power like in Malawi, Uganda.

The role of U.S.S.R, the leader of socialistic bloc which encouraged the formation of one party system known as vanguard party or workers’ party, the independence in the many African states coincided with the rise of cold war in Europe between two antagonistic ideology of capitalism and socialism. Many post independent African states adopted Marxist ideology of political economy that called for the formation of one-party state politics.

The support of other socialist states like China, Cuba which provided material and moral support to the countries that adopted socialism of one party system.
The influence of the ancient great political philosophers like Plato who advocated one party government as the only better method to serve the masses in any nation and on top of the ancient philosophers many post independent African states viewed capitalism as a mode of production that is largely based on exploitation of the masses, thus adoption of the alternative methods of socialism.

Coup d’état refers to the sudden military overthrow of civilian government by armed force. The post independent African countries were dominated by military regimes, which were witnessed by military coups, especially in 1960s up to 1970s.The first military coup was in Egypt in 1952, this marked the beginning of other coups in Sudan 1958, 1969, 1971, and later in 1980, in Zaire 1960 whereby Lumumba was overthrown by Kassa Vumbi, in Togo 1963, in Nigeria ,more than five military coups were conducted, in Algeria in 1971 ,in Uganda 1971 ,etc
In fact by early 1 970s military rule had become a serious African political option. It remained the most frequent means for change of government through the 1970s and 1980s.The causes of coup d’état in Africa immediately after independence were economic social and political causes which manifested during the post independence era that were directly problems generated during colonialism.


Failure of the civilian government to bring development after independence, coup d’état was always seen as the .only means of overthrowing an incompetent or unpopular leaders it made the military men to become frustrated and overthrow the government most of the post independent African leaders were puppet leaders that tended to serve the interest of imperialist and them selves, this made the military to over throw the civilian government.

Secondly the cause of coups in the post independent Africa was that the army inherited at independence had generally and originally been found as part of the process of initial colonial period had generally been held in reserves for internal use against potential rebellious subject rather than for defense of the country against potential hostile neighbors. At independence they had little initial role to play beyond being part of trappings of an independent nation state.

Rigging of election by civilian government also prompted the military intervention to take over the government e.g. in Nigeria the widespread that election of 1964-5 had been rigged finally destroyed the credibility of civilian government that led to the military first coup in Nigeria in January1966

The influence of cold war between capitalism and socialism .Many governments which advocated one ideology, the opposition prepared a coup to replace it with either bloc U.S.A capitalism or Communism of Russia.
Corruption and nepotism made the military government to overthrow the civilian government. In 1 960s military coups were reactions against inefficient and corrupt civilian regimes, the military were known for being well disciplined and usually free from corruption, thus won a lot of support from the masses, and e.g. Milton Obote in Uganda who promoted nepotism with corrupt leaders was eventually overthrown by Iddi Amin Dada in 1971.

Colonial policy of divide and rule which encouraged differences among ethnic groups, the colonial government left fragmented society which was very difficulty to satisfy, this created political struggle among various ethnic groups.

Involving military in politics, most of post independent African nations failed to separate politics and military as it had been made by the colonialists’ .This involvement of the military men into politics led to the overthrow of the civilian government.

Regional imbalance and tribalism E.g. in Nigeria, Uganda, this was brought by colonialism whereby military men came from labor zones which- were undeveloped, thus the overthrow of the civilian government.. In Uganda the northern part was dominated in the army, in Burundi it’s only the Tutsi who dominate the army such situations prepared for a military coup.

Suppression of opposition .Many post independent African states suppressed political parties and begun one party system which many people viewed as a dictatorship, this paved way for military coups e.g. In Nigeria the civilian government of 1979-83 demonstrated freedom of speech freedom of the press but within few years personal greedy suppression of the opposition lavish government spending, ware all welcomed by the coup of 1983 as to restore moral authority and discipline in the public.

Mass illiteracy .After independence many African had not attained the basic education thus they were very easy to be manipulated by any political opportunities

The rise of African elite politicians who had studied in Europe with little experience about African situation, thus after assuming power they failed to change the political, economical and social life style of the masses which made many masses to lose confidence in them and supported military regimes e.g. the February coup in Ghana in 1966 which led to the over throw of Nkrumah who was accused of spending most of his energies into being an international statesman while ignoring his own country mounting problems which led to cut of military defense budget and the government intervention of day to day military affairs.

Vicious poverty in Africa after independence many African governments failed to meet the standard of living for the army. Many military men were paid less and lived in miserable conditions. Poor living conditions they shared a single room with the family the general welfare was declining every another day. This made them very annoyed and tried to overthrow the government as a solution to solve the problem.

The bag of African problems most of which generated from colonialism, colonialism emphasized separateness, and fragmented ness. This has retarded the force of solving common problems of African unity, and instead promoted military over throws of civilian government


It should be remembered that during independence many African states began multiparty system which did not last for so long after the attainment of independence where by one party system was adopted especially in 1960s andl97Os. But in 1990s one party system began to collapse especially after the fall of Soviet Union which was the socialist bloc, and then many African nations began to adept multiparty system. E.g. in Tanganyika 1995 there was multiparty election, Kenya in 1992, some of the reasons for multiparty politics was internally motivated while others were externally motivated as we can expand below;

Collapse of U.S.S.R in early 1990s, the leading communist state which used to offer both ideological and material assistance to those countries that followed communist ideology which called for the formation of one party system known as vanguard party or workers party.

The influence of the leading capitalist nations of Europe and U.S.A, also influenced the African nations to adopt multiparty system if there to be given aid from IMF and World Bank which USA had strong influence.

The influence U.N. under her international organization of I.M.F and World Bank which persuaded the African Nations to change from mono-party to multi-party system.

The influence of mass media especially the international mass media like B.B.C, C.N.N etc which criticized one party system as a dictatorship of socialism .This made many countries especially in Africa to change their system.

Changes in national ideology. Many African countries adopted multiparty system after crossing from socialism to capitalism which calls for many party systems, as their national ideology.

Integration of European Union. In 1956 the integration of European Union also had an impact to the African countries to adopt multiparty system as to get assistance from members of European Union.

Failure of one party system to bring development contributed to the rise of many party politics, to check on corruption, nepotism, egoism, and dictatorship.

Increase of elites who had acquired their education in western European nation’s .During 1990 the elite’ people in Africa increased in number and begun to criticize the one party system, as type of dictatorship of socialism.

More commonly one party politics led to an abuse of state power. In countries such as Nkrumah Ghana Banda’s Malawi and most of the former French colonies, the one party was used to give the ruling party dictatorial powers in suppressing any criticisms of the government thus it became more and more unpopular among the masses especially the educated elites.

The post independent African states were dominated with political problems that led upheavals like civil wars. The major causes of these of political instabilities were;

The rise of dictators to power like Iddi Amin Dada in Uganda, Haile Sellasie in Ethiopia Kamuzu Banda in Malawi, forced people to use force as means to overthrow them, thus rise of civil wars.

Tribalism, regionalism, and religious differences, e.g. in Nigeria Muslim v/s Christians, in Uganda the central region v/s the northern part, in Burundi Tutsi v/s Hutu, all these promoted instability and civil wars

Weak economic base /poverty .This has been the root cause of civil wars and instability in Africa. Many Africans have turned against their government accusing them to segregate them from sharing the national cake.

Existence of military Regimes like in Nigeria under San Abacha, in Uganda under Idd Amin. Such military regimes encouraged terror and violence that lead to political instability as their technique to continue clinging in power.

Colonial boundaries and inter regional conflict e.g. in Kenya and Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea, Cameroon and Nigeria, Uganda and Tanzania these boundaries were established by the colonialists, But now they have promoted political instability in the regions.

Corruption, Nepotism and lack of transparency in public offices, among the political leaders of Africa after independence, which have led to embezzlement of public funds and uneven distribution of national resources. Some people are segregated from the national cake, this make them to fight against the domination.

Violating human rights, like freedom of speech, freedom of marriage, freedom of movement, freedom of expression heavy punishment, arbitrary arrest, extra judicial killings, etc.

Lack of able political and patriotic administrator, who are forecasted leader who could organize Africans to achieve development. Most of the leaders after independence in Africa were puppets that were planted by colonialist for their own interest.

It promoted national disunity among the masses, basing on tribal lines and regional basis e.g. in Rwanda Burundi the Tutsi and the Hutu are highly divided basing on ethical back ground.

civil wars caused misery, death, and destruction of properties e.g. in Angola, Sudan Uganda and Rwanda among others million of civilians have been internally displaced living in refugee camps were their subjected to all sorts of suffering and misery, while others were killed in the course of war.

It discourages economic development whereby governments spend a lot of money and time to suppress the insurgency or rebels this may be done at the expense of other social development, lack of social development like infrastructure and other social over heads may perpetuate the poverty syndrome in many countries of Africa that faced civil wars.

Occurrence of coup d’état as a result of dissatisfaction among the disgruntled people and this may increase more political tension among the masses which may increase the suffering and misery among the people e.g. in Uganda 1971 where Iddi Amin took over the government that made even foreign forces to intervene.

It leads to the outbreak of diseases like small pox, malaria, aids since little tension is given to healthy sector such diseases happen to increase in numbers in Southern Sudan as much as the war claimed many lives of innocent women and children also diseases have claimed a significant number of children and women in the war zone etc.

It leads to internal displacement of people from places of war to safe places this lead to the discouragement, of agriculture and other economic activities and this may bring famine and malnutrition related diseases.

It brought foreign intervention into national affairs e.g. United nations may intervene European Union or USA, and this is very dangerous at times where by some times such power may not have interest to help or to solve the conflict but rather to increase it for their own national interest e.g. to guarantee market for weapons like in Angola and Southern Sudan were civil wars have taken more than 20 years.


Immediately after the independence in Africa there was temporally an economic boom in the world economy, African cash crops and minerals fetched higher prices for the first time. The continent with inexperienced rulers had higher expectation of what could be achieved with political independence. But their dreams were shuttered as the depth of the underlying economic crisis became apparent.

Within few years the African countries had run up huge new debts with the ‘developed’ world, the result was the need of greater-ever exports of cash crops and minerals to finance the debts. This made the old trading patterns to continue, of producing low price fetched primary goods and import highly priced industrial European goods, and the adverse terms of trade got worse. The biggest mistake the new African leaders committed that must have contributed to the economic crisis was the modeling their development programs with those of the so called ‘developed’ industrialized nation of Europe and North American.

In this they were strongly advised by European economic ‘experts’ the theory was simple: Europe was ‘developed’ Africa was ‘underdeveloped’. Therefore to rectify the problem, Africa must c.opy the European model of urban-centered industrialization. African inexperienced leader accepted the model because they saw rapid industrialization as the means to achieve economic self sufficiency. With an idea that if African industrializes then they could manufacture their own consumer goods which up until then had been imported from Europe and will stop the drain of African wealthy to the already ‘developed’ world.

In 1970s and 1980s after independence many African states faced economic crises whereby they failed to provide basic necessities to their people like healthy education economic social and political development. It should be remembered that during the colonial period the African nations under the administration of the metro pole enjoyed good balance of trade. Foreign debt was almost non existence. But after independence soon the major Economic problems begun to manifest in the peripheries, foreign debt and drought became the stifling factors for economic prosperity in the post independent Africa, as we can trace their root causes here.

Neo-colonialism, even after independence the economies of Africans still were indirectly controlled by their former colonial masters, the marketing and the prices paid for exports were still controlled from the financial centers of the ‘developed’ nations. The Ghanaian leader Kwame Nkrumah coined the term ‘neo colonialism’ to describe Europe’s economic control over politically-independent Africa. The French and the British particularly maintained close control over the economies of their former colonies. This maintained low pricing of African produce and high prices of European finished goods. This heavily affected the economic status of Africa, economies such situation brought economic dependence and crisis.

Absence of strong economic base to produce manufactured industrial goods for export, rather than primary goods that acted as raw materials in the metro pole. African government inherited two particular repressive economic policies from their colonial predecessors: poll tax and agriculture as the major source of foreign exchange through marketing boards the agriculture cash crops fetched low prices as compared to the prices of the imports of finished European goods. Poll tax was another source of government income but it was charged to every male adult regardless of their income but these revenues were very meager to escape any economic crisis.
The fall of coffee prices inl970s because of over production in Brazil affected the African economy which had no other alternative to export. African economies had inherited a monoculture system of cultivation from colonialism the back bone of African economic largely based on traditional cash crop of coffee and cotton which limited their foreign exchange. Thus the frequent fluctuation of the prices of those products heavily affected the economies of African economies hence the growing of economic crisis.

Highly depended economy based on agriculture and primary production, at independence the vast majority of Africa’s population was still based in rural areas, dependent partially or wholly upon substance farming. But government, dominated by urban educated elite, often scorned the rural peasant as backward and unproductive. And yet they themselves failed to invest surplus government funds or expensive foreign loans in the economy. Thus the problems of Africans that inherited were more than her income thus resorted on lending from international lenders while having low investment this led to economic crisis.

High interest rate on debts that acquired from European nation some time with pre-conditionality to implement first, this made it difficulty to pay back the debts especially after independence which made African nations to fail to pay or servicing back the debts, this resulted into economic crisis.

Disasters like prolonged drought in Tanganyika especially in 1981-1984 and 1990 and 1990. That totally crippled the backbone of African economies which had largely depended on the export of raw materials in Europe. This forced the government to borrow money from foreign sources as to fight famine and maintain the supply of basic needs of the people, hence debt crisis.

Poor administration and planning many, African countries embarked on early industrialization which was too ambitious and lacked proper planning and often inappropriate for the needs and resources of the country. African countries imported all the expertise, technology, machinery, and building materials from Europe and North America. The same applied to the social amenities like education medical and transport facilities which African new leaders were determined to provide for their people. Within few years the debt problem was beyond imagination thus economic crisis as to pay the debts.

The fall and the fluctuating prices of agricultural products, The African new leaders’ inability to do much beyond enriching them selves was coincided in the mid of 1 960s with dramatic fall in world commodity prices for Africa’s principle agricultural exports. Manufactured imports upon which Africa had become too dependant thus became relatively much more expensive. Many countries begun to cut back on imports no matter how much they needed them, so as to pay the swelling of foreign debts, inflation rose rapidly and they were shortage of goods in the shops. That marked the beginning of the economic crisis. .

Corruption, embezzlement and lavish spending, many government of those countries that had achieved independence around 1 960s especially in West Africa, had spent lavishly upon expensive industrial and prestige projects with insufficient concern for their appropriateness. Ghana’s Akasombo dam was a case in point. This huge hydroelectric project saddled Ghana with a crippling international debt and in the long term provided little practical advantage to the majority of Ghanaians and many such projects occurred in many countries in Africa, thus development of debt crisis.

In Tanzania the debt crisis had increased due to some particular problems faced by the country in 1970s that included the following events;
The long drought season of 1973-1974 and 1981-1984 where agriculture came into a stand still.
The oil price crisis of 1976 in the Middle East hindered all economic activities in Tanganyika.
The fall of East African community in 1977 also affected Tanzania.
The war against Idd Amin in 1978 .brought high expenditure.
The nationalization of all parastatal bodies which the government spent a lot of money with no returns

Accumulation of debts brought debt crisis in the third world countries, because of high interest rate on the original principle( money borrowed initially) was accumulating at an alarming speed that many African nations failed to pay back the loans acquired.

Decreasing welfare of the masses because o debt servicing and debt payment e.g. in Tanzania 40% of the total internal revenue goes to pay debts acquired in the past. Many African governments abandoned their development programs as to reserve some foreign exchange to repatriate the debts.

Increasing foreign intervention and dependence of African economies to the metro pole, European nations and north America begun to intervene in African economies as to monitor their debts payment some countries begun to give economic advise to the African nations as to be able to pay back the loans ‘experts’ were sent from Europe to assist in planning.

Unfavorable balance of payment where by African foreign exchange is low than what it needs this is because of high demand of foreign goods and few export of goods to European nations, and the little foreign exchange that is acquired is spent in paying back the debts.

Increase in the level of poverty among the masses because of low investments in Africa like in the industrial sector that may increase the employment rate in the country. Despite low investments also social amenities which would have facilitated trade were ignored like roads railway harbors feeder roads, all this led to general underdevelopment of national economy because of paying the debts.

Tanzania has taken serious steps since independence so as to solve the problems of economic crisis, which had brought far reaching impact on the masses; the majority of the population in Tanzania is living below international poverty line surviving on less than $ 1 a day. That’s why the country has taken serious measures to curb the debt burden which is the major causative factor of poverty in the country. These problems were divided into three forms from 1961-1967.-1968-1985, 1986 — to the present.

From 1961 -1966.
The programme to solve the problems of economic crisis begun immediately after independence, with 3 years development plan that aimed at improving agriculture, communication and education based on communist model, that included egalitarian measures (equal opportunity for all ) such measures included the following programmes.
Socialism and self reliance made in February 1967, salaries of government employees from the president down, were reduced to normal and measures were set to ensure that no civil servant or M.P or TANU office holder should continue in office if he retained any interest in the private business or if he employed labor (except for seasonal agriculture workers) this was very instrumental in curbing corruption and office abuse by the politicians.

Diversion of resources from urban areas to rural development and within agriculture the concentration on the overall advance of peasant farming rather than on highly organized and capitalized schemes with an impact on limited number of farmers. Gradually it intended that the rural population will regroup itself into ujamaa villages in which the people will work together on communal land so that development can benefit the all community not few individuals.
Administrative and education curriculum was changed in order to change it from a colonial relic to means of preparation for life in a socialist Tanzania. The new values of cooperative basis, it was recognized that development plans must be worked out on the basis of country’s own resources with foreign assistance regarded as an extra bonus rather than the main determinant of what should be done.

Emphasis was now to be put on small scale projects which required the labor the labor of the people principally; the people themselves were to be responsible for the largely rural development rather than leaving the government to take all the initiatives.

Nationalization of land from the colonialists and distributed to the people for economic development, it was another solution of self reliance was the determination that control of all major sources of investable funds and other vital resources should be in hands of local people this led to the nationalization of all foreign banks and other commercial and manufacturing private companies under complete or partially state ownership.

Removal of head tax, this head tax had no any significance from the majority peasants in the rural areas, it was unpopular in many areas in the villages it increased rather poverty among the masses since it was inherited from colonialism, the government establishment new sources of revenue correction of various means.

Reforms in the army and the establishment of union government in 1964 with Zanzibar.

From 1967 -1980s.
Establishment of Ujamaa village, in 1973-74 around, 8000 of such villages had been created, by 1977 around five million people were moved in such villages, masses were taken in demarcated villages to carry out community agriculture following the Arusha declaration 5th February 1967.

Nationalization and establishment parastatal bodies like TANESCO, TRC, NIC to offer services to the people. Not to generate profit

Man power and national experts were trained from inside and out side the country to help in technical issues of the nation.

Introduction and expansion of primary and secondary industry on small scale and large like SIDO in 1973.

Development of infrastructures to offer social services to the people like railways TAZARA, KIA in 1970s.

Expansion of agriculture by using slogan like “siasa ni kilimo” in 1972 to train peasant modern methods for cultivation.

Introduction of self reliance education to all citizens of Tanzania

Introduction of free universal education and adult education to remove illiteracy rate.

From1986- Present.
Introduction of trade liberalization policy that private businesses were allowed to operate along side with government parastatals.

Privatizations of some public enterprises where the government floated some of her shares to the public or fully privatized.

Acquiring of new loans and grants from IMF and World bank for national development.

Adoption of national human resource deployment programme. (Nguvu kazi).

The IMF was established on 27th December 1945 its headquarters are in Washington D.C USA, it was established as a result of Bretton Woods conference and her sister institution of world Bank. The major objectives of IMF and World Bank were; to promote international co operation, Economic growth and to eliminate all international trade barriers.
The trouble is that the IMF and its associate world bank , both Washington-based, are financed by the banks of ‘developed’ capitalist nations of western Europe and north America their priorities have reflected the interest of the capitalist ‘West’ which still regards African primarily as a source of raw materials for its own developed industries.

Following the worsening of economic conditions in many African states in 1980s-1990s African exports dropped in price ten or twenty times in relation with the manufactured imports. Running out of foreign exchange, even ‘self reliance’ government like that of Tanzania had to turn to, IMP for emergency foreign exchange and or further loans to pay the interest for the loans already too large them ever to pay off.

To get access to the funds of IMF it set some preconditions known as Structural adjustment programme (SAP) that aimed for economic recovery of African economies. Unfortunately these policies of SAP applied universally, have been modeled on the practices of developed capitalist system rather than on the specific needs and best interest of the individual African countries concerned. What were presented as solutions to underlying problems carried with them even greater problem of their own.

How ever some African scholars are viewing IMF and World Bank as institution of former colonial masters representing the interest of the imperialists through their new form of colonialism, known as neo colonialism, IMF and World bank are just increasing the African problems than they have solved, SAP has brought more poverty, and misery than it found.


The first condition was that the government was suppose to balance their budgets: in theory it meant a cut in annual growth of government debt such move affected much the social infrastructure development that were suppose to be provided by the government.

The second conditionality was to devaluation of the local currency: this aimed at making the exports to fetch high prices like cash crops and minerals in the world market. But also made imports more expensive since local currency had no value in relation to the foreign currency

Introduction of liberalization of capital controls, this aimed at solving the problem of lack of inadequate indigenous capital for investments through trade liberalization aimed at attracting foreign investments with foreign capital to improve the terms of trade. The policy also aimed at avoiding government monopoly control over foreign exchange and import restrictions and abandons trade protectionism.

Privatization of public entities owned by the government, so that the government should not own all business, but must share with the private investors both local and foreign to ensure proper management and to avoid unprofitable business.
Introducing free foreign exchange market to the public and to abolish the monopoly of government control over prices in the market, this was seen as one of the way to boost internal trade and to allow price mechanism to determine the prices.

Adoption of multiparty politics and abolish mono-party politics, this will work as check and balance to the ruling government where by abuses like corruption nepotism and abuse of public office can be dealt with by the opposition side of the government, that eventually good governance of transparency and accountability can be achieved.

To form a strong revenue body like T.R.A. that its corruption free to correct taxes from the business people as to control government budget deficits by increasing government revenues.

Reduce spending on public services by the government cost sharing must be introduced in some public services: the funding should be by individual and private groups this was targeting education and healthy sector.

Reduce the workforce by reducing the number of people employed by the government as to reduce government expenditure and to maintain efficiency.

It led to mass un-employment because of because of the retrenchment policy of civil servants, whereby their life became misery no income the termination benefits given to them were meager to continue life.

Some policies of S.A.P ware impracticable hence promoted chaos violence and internal disputes in Africa like privatizing of all public enterprises.

It increased poverty, suffering and civil wars among the Africans since most of the policies increase dependency ratio between the African nations with the Europeans donor countries.

It increased corruption especially in privatization where transparency and un-accountability were non existent for stance secret agreement from the public in selling public entities embezzlement of funds.

It has undermined democracy and increase the existence of puppet leaders in many African nations that have adopted S .A.P. who are for the interest of the foreigners.

It has led to the influx of more capitalist investors to own essential investment in the nation like TANESCO, T.T.C.L this makes the economy to be owned by foreigners. Who are profits motivated rather than service oriented.

The devaluation of local currencies and the scrapping away of government subsidies in public sector like healthy have led to increase of income inequality which increases the level of poverty in the country.


Neo-Colonialism, Refers to the indirect control of the African nation by their former colonial masters socially, politically, and economically. This came about following the attainment of flag independence from the colonial masters. The colonial administrators took steps to ensure that their economic interest would not be jeopardized by the transfer of power.

One of the methods was to prepare ground for the creation of puppet leaders by involving leaders of national movement into colonial government. This ensured that emerging leaders were groomed to up hold the existing exploitative relations.

Secondly the process of handing over power ensured that neo colonial relation would follow independence as to grantee the economic interest of the former colonial master, the constitution was made and approved by the colonialists, they made sure that the western model of political authority was followed in the independent country, The strategic sectors were preserved to the colonial masters like Finance, and International relation. In fact even in those fields that African was given responsibility the colonial did not vacant.

Neo-colonialisrn has got four forms and it’s through these forms African countries are controlled and exploited by their former colonial masters and other capitalist countries, like USA. In other words how neo colonialism operates, as to meet the interest of the imperialists.

Through massive investment by imperialist multi-corporations companies, as a way to exploit market area for investment and cheap labor of Africa e.g. such corporations include. Coca-Cola, Barclays Banks, Shell mining companies etc.

Through controlling the World market by fixing price of African cash crops by keeping the prices low so that African remain dependant to their aid.

To make Africa a damping place for cheap European manufactured goods, so that Africa remain dc-industrialize, and depend on them for consumer goods.

Monopolizing technology by preventing Africans to engage into new technologies
e.g. EEC - ACP relation signed in 1976 between European Economic Community and African Caribbean and Pacific, prohibiting African nation to produce sensitive commodities that are produced by European nations.

Through giving loans and grants under World Bank and IMF to Africans with very high interest rate and unrealistic conditions, this proves hard for African nations to pay back, that result into debt burden.

Sending of European ‘expatriates’ to work in African countries for interests of their countries and then are given higher standard of living than the local people like high wages expensive accommodation, luxurious cars, which makes all the funds given as aid to be spent to the foreigner expatriates.

Through international financial organs like IMF, W.B, IBRD, EU, GATT etc to make policies that enable them to continue exploiting the third World countries e.g. S.A.P.

Through establishing relation with a ruling class and create a puppet leader, so that can be influenced according to their interest (the imperialist.)

Through political influence and ideology following the imperialist democracies like parliamentary system election and multi party system, under the influence of UN.

Through propaganda of mass media making Africans to listen their radios like BBC, CNN, VOA, D.W

Through planting and supporting puppet leaders who serve their interests e.g. Yoweri Museveni in Uganda J. Rawlings in Ghana.

Over throwing communist oriented government and putting capitalist based government e.g. Zaire in case of Lumumba in l96O and Ghana in case of Nkrumah

Through influence of films, books, and education syllabus where by the curriculum is developed by the agents of colonialist that it is European based to a big extent.

Provision of scholarships to Africans to study abroad, in their countries.

Brainwashing Africans through ideological indoctrination.

Establishment of military bases e.g. USA has got 234 military base in 44 countries of Africa.

To provide military assistance like weapons and instructors to train African military men.

By conducting coup d’état in the case of stubborn leaders who are against their economic interests.

By developing self sustainable and self reliance economies which may reduce the problem of dependence to the metropole.

African should develop science and technology of their own, by encouraging science subjects in school and higher institutions, research must be conducted often to come out with new ideas, instead of depending foreign on technology.

African should encourage and strengthen the regional integration which may increase their economic power and political dominance. E.g. EAC, SADC, ECO WAS, etc.

African countries should diversify their economies from monoculture to both industrial and agricultural sector, this will reduce over dependence of one sector, so that incase of the collapse of prices of one sector should not heavily affect the national economy

African should socialize and nationalize productive forces to reduce individual monopolies in economic and political power.

African should form democracy, transparence accountability in public offices to reduce the danger of corruption nepotism and embezzlement

To reject western interference in the political, economic and social affairs of African issues so as we develop an independent decisions and independent mind.

African should reject western standards like culture dressing foods and etc because they only create market for European goods and make African damping place. This discourages the development of infant industries in the continent.

Avoid civil war and conflicts that bring about economic backwardness and concentrate on political solution to iron out internal dispute instead of applying gun




The organization of African unity was founded on 25’ May 1963 in Addis Ababa Ethiopia by thirty- two heads of state of then independent African states the first chairman was Emperor Haile Sellasie of Ethiopia. This was inspired by pan — Africanist sentiment of bringing all people of African origin both in the Diaspora and Africa under a single organization, to fight and protect their rights.

Nkurumah one of the pioneers of African union and the founding father of Ghana was greatly influenced by his education in USA. he believed that the only way to achieve complete economic as well as political freedom from European domination was to create a powerful new ‘United states of Africa’ then through continental wide cooperation, Africa would really take place on the world economic and political stage on terms o equality. In unity Nkrumah saw strength, but in practical terms his dream proved illusory.

The primary aim of OAU was to promote African unity and solidarity as the only way forward to achieve complete economic as well as political freedom from other countries of the world, because unity and solidarity would make Africa a superpower among other countries.

To co-ordinate and intensify the cooperation and the efforts of African states to achieve a better living of people of Africa and also to help the speeding up of the decolonization in the rest of Africa.

To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states, one of the OAU principle states the acceptance of the principle of non interference in internal affairs of member state.

To eradicate all forms of colonialism in Africa and acts of slavery in the entire continent of Africa by promoting freedom and human rights to be given first priority.

To promote international cooperation in accordance of the United Nations Organization and the universal declaration of human rights.

The existence of sovereign equality of all members.

Non interference in the internal affairs of the member states.

Respect for the sovereignty and the inalienable right to independent of all member states

Peaceful settlement of disputes by negotiation, mediation and conciliation or arbitration

The affirmation of the policy of non-alignment

Unreserved condemnation of political assassination as well as of subversive activities against any member state.

It achieved to unite the diverse countries of Africa; this has been attained despite discrepancies in political ideology, levels of economic development, language colonial experience and vast geographical differences. There was of course disagreement between states and groups of states but its main aim was unity and OAU survived its first three decades with no permanent sprit.

It has achieved in providing a forum for discussing common problems of African states and offering solution like discrimination or apartheid, diseases and civil wars among others. Which to a big extent have been dealt with.

The regular meetings of ministers and heads of state have helped to generate greater awareness of other countries problem

OAU has also achieved in Liberation’ of Africa from colonialism e.g. Zimbabwe, Angola, and Namibia, through the provision of moral and material support to .the nationalistic movements in various nations.

The African development bank, which grew out of the OAU in 1967, became an invaluable tool for mobilizing world finance for Africa development projects. The idea of coordinating and mobilizing international capital for the benefit of Africa was of particular value during the 1 970s and early 1 980s.

O.A.U has provided many African refugees with jobs and education, who came as a result of internal conflicts in various African nations

The organization has taken measures to improve agriculture, industry, transport and communication trade and education cooperation in various countries.

The meeting of heads of states each year to discuss the problems and achievement of the continent is one of the achievements.

Many conflicts have been solved by the organization in the continent e.g. the war between Tanzania and Uganda 1978, Mali and Burkina Faso 1985, Kenya and Somalia 1970 etc.

OAU has encouraged Regional integration among is member states, such as ECOWAS 1975, SADC 1980, COMESA 1993, has its roots from O.AU.

OAU has achieved in acting as chief mediator between various African states to avoid the occurrence of bloodshed e.g. between Ethiopia and Eritrea.

A member state decides individually and voluntarily to be the member of the organization and it could withdraw its membership at any time that it fills to do so, this weakens the strength of the organization e.g Morroco is not a member.

Another big problem that faced OAU was that it had no legal sanction to enforce its resolutions. Member state could decide to refuse or ignore to implement the organizations decisions, that is why it has always been blamed for being little more than ‘a talking-shop’ with no serious implementation of her resolutions.

Lack of adequate funds it largely based on the annual contributions of member states Most of the member states delayed to pay or defaulted to pay their contributions, this made the organization to fail to run its activities.

Unequal development of the members of the organization caused by poverty, illiteracy, and unequal distribution o resources.

There are many refugees in Africa which is the result of civil wars in many areas of the continent such as Burundi, D.RC, Sudan, Somalia, etc.

The continent is still poor depending on debts and loans from World Bank and I.M.F, with difficult conditionalities to fulfill.

Differences in languages and religion, some societies are proud of their mother tongue; other countries are using English, others Arabic, French etc every state/tribe wants to use the language of her interest. There is tension between fundamentalist Muslims who want to apply Sharia law while Christians wants western system of democracy.

African countries are affected by natural disasters such as drought, floods, earthquake, A.I.D.S, etc these affects the welfare of the people.

Difference in ideology of the member states, head of states are unable to come together to discuss their problems.

Lack of a single currency to be used by all member states since it isn’t decided on to be used; this hinders trade activities in the continent.

Weak economic base of many of the member states most of the member state had just got their independence from European imperialist nations; all are based on production of primary goods of agriculture products and minerals that fetched little prices.

The Formation of AU (AFRICAN UNION)
AU is the organization of African countries which originally started by the declaration to the heads of states and Government of the O.A.U. to establish African Union on 9 —9-1999. The Constitutive Act of the African Union was adopted and entered into force in 2000 at the Lome summit in Togo. In 2001 the African countries putdown the plan for the implementation of the Union in Lusaka while in 2002 they held the first Assembly of the Heads of states of AU in Durban where Thabo Mbeki of South Africa became the 1t chairman. Its headquarters are in Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia

The Reason Which Led to the Rise of AU
The fulfillment of the basic O.A.U objectives led to the formation of AU. Formerly O.A.U. had succeeded to achieve such objectives like eradication of colonialism in Mozambique, Angola , Zimbabwe, and destruction of apartheid in South Africa. Then, the leaders realized that there was a need to create a new organization which dealt with the social, economic and political problems in the rapid changing world in 1990’s. During this time Africa faced economic decline, unfavourable economic relationship with the developed nation and the rise of new political systems. There was a need to make an organization to unite Africans against the problems from the situation which prevailed at the moment.

Objectives /Goals of AU
African Union has so many objectives:
To achieve greater unity and solidarity between the African countries and the people themselves.

To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of members.

To accelerate or increase the political and socio-economic integration (unity) of the continent.

To promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its people.

To, encourage international co-operation in line with the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

To promote peace, security and stability in Africa.

To promote democratic principles and institutions, popular participation and goods governance.

To promote and protect human and peoples’ rights in line with the African charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and other relevant human rights instruments.

To establish the necessary conditions which enable Africa to play its rightful role in the global or world economy through international negotiations.

To promote sustainable development at the economic, social and cultural levels as well as the integration of economies.

To promote co-operation in all fields of human activity to raise the living standard of African peoples.

To coordinate and harmonize the policies between the existing and future Regional Economic communities and the gradual achievement o the objectives of AU.

To enhance the development of the continent promoting research in all the fields especially Science and technology.

To work with relevant international partners in the elimination of preventable disease and the promotion of health on the continent.

The Organs of the African Union
A.U has about 10 organs which included:
(1) The Assembly- It is a supreme organ of the Union. It is composed of heads of states and Government. It has to meet at least once a year in ordinary session, at the request of any member state and on approval by a two thirds majority of member states. It is headed by a chairman for a period of one year.

Its functions are:-
Determine the common policies of the Union.

Receive, consider and take decision on reports and recommendations from the other organs of the Union.

Consider requests for membership of the Union.

Establish any organ of the Union.

Monitor the implementation of policies and decisions of the Union as well as ensure compliance by all members.

Adopt the budget of the Union.

Give directives to the Executive council on the management of conflict war and restoration of peace.

Appoint and terminate appointments of judges of the court of justice

Appoint the Chairman of the commission and his or her deputy and the commissioners as well as determining their functions and terms of office.

(2) The Executive Council — It is composed by the ministers of Foreign Affairs or such other Ministers as decided by Member states. The Executive Council meets twice a year in ordinary session. It also has to meet in extra ordinary session at the request of any member states and upon approval of 2/3 of all members.

(3) The Pan - African Parliament - It is established in order to provide a chance for full participation of African people in the development and economic integration of the continent. The first speaker has been Gertrude Mongella from Tanzania since 2004. The post will be succeeded by many officials from the members in future.

(4) The African court of Justice- when it is fully established its functions and -composition will be given by the union.

(5) The commission - It is the secretariat of the union. It is composed of the chairman, his deputies and the commissioners together with other staff. The Assembly is responsible to provide the functions and regulations of the commission. The current chairman of the commission is H.E. Alpha Oumar Konare of Mali.

(6) The Permanent Representative Committee - It is charged with the responsibility of preparing the work of Executive council. ft acts also on the instructions of Executive council. It may set up sub-committee or groups as it sees necessary

(7) The Specialized Technical Committees - it includes:
The committee on Rural Economy and Agricultural matters.
The committee on Monetary and Financial Affairs.
The committee on Trade, Customs and Immigration Matters.
The committee on Industry, Science and Technology, Energy Natural Resources and Environment.
The committee on Transport, Communications and Tourism.
The committee on Labour, Health and Social Affairs.
The committee on Education, Culture and Human resources. -
The Assembly has to restructure the existing committees and establish others. The body is composed by ministers with competence of respective areas.
The functions of the committees are:
To prepare projects and programmes of the Union and submit it to the Executive council.

Ensure the supervision, follow-up and the evaluation of the implementation of decisions taken by organization of the union.

Coordinate the projects and programmes of the Union.

Submit reports and recommendations on the implementations of the Act of the Union to the Executive council.

Carry out other functions as assigned to any of the committees.
(8) The Economic Social and Cultural Council -This is an advisory organ which is made of professional groups of the member states. All its functions have to be given out by the Assembly.

(9) The Peace and Security Council —It is a body which will deal with peace keeping and conflicts settlements in the member states.

(10) The Financial Institutions — The Union intends to have the African central Bank, the Africa monetary fund and the African Investment Bank to provide financial help to its members.

Problems Which Threaten future success of AU
There are so many problems:
Lack of fund —most of its member are poor nations. It does not get enough money to run its activities.

Civil war in countries such as Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Sudan, Northern Uganda seem to keep these countries far from the goals of AU.

Corruption such as mismanagement of public money by the leader like former president of Zambia, Mr. Chiluba discourages good governance which is on of the interests of AU.

Poor infrastructure such as roads, railways and water ways continued to weaken smooth transport of raw materials from productive areas to industries as well as transport of products from towns to the rural areas.

Epidemics such as HIV/AIDs kills skilled labour which would have been used by AU to develop many sectors like agriculture, industries, fishing and tourism.

Unfovaurable economic relationship between African countries and developed nations still makes African countries fall behind than what is required in economic and social development. They export products to world market and sell them at lower price which in turn could not develop the AU members. All these problems threaten future success of AU.

The Benefits of AU to Tanzania
There are so many benefits which will be acquired by Tanzania from being a member of AU. The benefits include:

Tanzania would get an opportunity to unite with other African countries to solve political conflicts peacefully in several African states and the country will use AU to discuss for the presence of good relationship between Africa, Europe and U.S.A.
Tanzania will make friendship with other African countries through the joint activities and programmes in social and economic sectors. This condition would reduce the number of countries which might have intended to act as enemies of Tanzania on the continent.

Tanzania will get new ideas and information that will be used to solve many problems which exist in agriculture, industry and the 1ea4Th sectors. They will be obtained from various meetings and workshops attended by the leaders of the government.

The financial institutions such as the African central bank and the African investment bank obviously would provide money as loans and grants to Tanzania. The money would be used by the country to develop agricultural production, science and technology, transport and education.

NEPAD (The New Partnership for Africa’s Development)
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) in the 21st century is a started programme under African Union which intends to bring political, social and economic development in the 21st century.

The Origins of NEPAD
The NEPAD came from a mandate given to the five initiating Heads of States in Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal and South Africa by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) to develop an integrated socio-economic development framework for Africa. The 37th Summit of OAU in July, 2001 officially adopted NEPAD as a strategic framework document for African development.

The NEPAD Objectives
To eradicate poverty.

To place African countries, both individual and collectively, on a path of sustainable growth and development;

To halt the marginalization of Africa in the globalization process and advance its full and beneficial integration into the global economy.

To accelerate the empowerment of women. 

The Principles of NEPAD
Good governance as a basic requirement for peace, security and sustainable political and socio-economic development;

African ownership and leadership, as well as broad and deep participation by all sectors of society; in the realization of African development.

Bring the development of Africa on its resources and resourcefulness of its people. The principle likely encourage self reliance of African countries.
Partnership between and amongst African peoples in performing various socio-economic development programmes.

Acceleration of regional and continental integration among members of African Union.

Building the competitiveness of African countries and the continent in the world economy.

Forging a new international partnership that changes the unequal relationship between Africa and the developed world; and

Ensuring that all Partnership programme with NEPAD are linked to the Millennium Development Goals and other agreed development goals and targets of the United Nations.

The NEPAD Priorities
The priorities of NEPAD are chosen key areas which have to draw the attention of the members. They are divided into three areas such as:
(a) Establishing the conditions for sustainable development by ensuring
Peace and security exist in African countries.

Democracy and good political, economic and good governance among the people of Africa.

Regional co-operation and integration whereby all countries have to work together for their own development.

Provision of help which enables African states achieves prosperity.

(b) Policy change and increased investment in the following priority sectors such as:
Agriculture which intends to bring food once it is improved.

Human development with a focus on health, education, science and technology and skills development.

Building and improving infrastructure, including Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Energy, Transport, Water and Sanitation.

Promoting diversification of production and exports, particularly with respect to agro-industries, manufacturing, mining, mineral beneficiation and tourism.

Accelerating intra-African trade and improving access to markets of developed countries.

The protection of environment in Africa.

(c) Mobilizing Resources by
Increasing domestic savings and investments.

Improving management of public revenue and expenditure by avoiding misuse of the revenue.

Improving Africa’s share in global trade by exporting products to be sold at fair prices.

Attracting foreign direct investment to African countries.

Increasing capital flows through further debt reduction and increase of aid flows to African countries. Members should work to eliminate debt problem.

Desired Outcomes of NEPAD
NEPAD laid down its outcomes in Africa. The most important outcomes are:
Africa becomes more effective in conflict prevention and the establishment of enduing peace on the continent.

Africa adopt and implements principles of democracy and good political economic and good governance, and the protection of human rights becomes further entrenched in every African country.

Africa develops and implements effective poverty eradication programmes and accelerates the pace of achieving African development goals, particularly human development.

Africa achieves increased levels of domestic savings, as well as investments, both domestic and foreign investments.

Africa achieves desired ability for policy development, coordination and negotiation in the international cooperation, to ensure its beneficial engagement in the world economy, especially on trade and market access issues.

Regional integration is further accelerated and higher levels of sustainable economic growth in Africa would be achieved.

Genuine partnerships will be established between Africa and the developed countries based on mutual respect and equality.


The structure of NEPAD is the organs which implement the decisions passed by the member countries to achieve objectives. The highest authority of the NEPAD implementation process is the Heads of States and Government Summit of the African Union, formerly known as the O.A.U.

The Heads of State and Government Implementation Committee (HSIC) Comprises 3 states per AU region as mandated by the OAU Summit of July 2001 and ratified by the AU Summit of July 2002. The HSIC reports to the AU Summit on an annual basis.

The Steering Committee of NEPAD comprises the Personal Representatives of the NEPAD Heads of State and Government. This Committee oversees projects and programme of development.

The NEPAD Secretariat coordinates implementation of projects and programmes approved by the HSI (The Heads of States and Government Implementation Committee).


It was founded on 6 June 1967; the government of Tanganyika, Kenya and, Uganda signed a treaty in Kampala Uganda. Its history goes back to 1923 when the governor of Tanganyika, Kenya, and Uganda formed the East African Governors Conference to facilitate the cooperation. In 1948 it changed to East Africa high Commission, in 1961 the East Africa common services organization was established.

To promote free trade in goods and services produced among the members.

To provide common services such as railways, harbors, posts and telecommunication.

To provide wider and more secure market for industrial and agricultural goods

To allow free movement of people in the region for trade recreation and other social activities.

To achieve technological innovation and advancement.

To conduct research activities in agriculture, population, medicine and mining for its development.

It aims at solving region problems jointly by the heads of the member states

The problem of the distribution of different services, the distribution was more beneficial to Kenya than Uganda and Tanzania.

Border conflicts e.g. between Tanzania and Uganda during ldd Amin.

The ideological disparity between the three countries, Tanzania self reliance and socialism, Kenya capitalist ideology, Uganda during Idd Amin fascism.

Uneven distribution of the community cake, Kenya took a lion share at the expense of Uganda and Tanzania.

The organization had its roots from colonial period nothing changed fundamentally that

Britain went on benefiting through Kenya.

The East African Bank failed a balance development of industries in the three countries Kenya benefited more than Tanzania and Uganda in income tax and custom duties.

Currency differences the governments restricted free transfer and exchange of currency. This discourages interstate transactions in goods.

The community experienced great losses and debts.

The failure of the member country to contribute the agreed fees

It was formed as the replacement of Southern African Development coordination Conference-SADCC formed in I 980.It was in 1993 when it was changed to SADC. This is an association of eleven countries such as Angola, Botswana. Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia Zimbabwe and South Africa.

To help member states to have a genuine and equitable regional integration.

To mobilize the regional resources for their benefit.

To foster international cooperation.

To enhance the development o industries, trade mining and agriculture and energy resources.

To improve transport and communication links.

To improve internal market.

Weak financial base, members rely on foreign aid and loan.

Members produce similar agricultural goods such as coffee, sisal, tobacco which compete for market.

All members depend on agriculture rather than industries, when the price of agricultural commodities fluctuates which leads to low earnings.

Lack of qualified and skilled man power to run the organization, they depend on foreign experts.

Unequal distribution of the benefits of the association discourages other states.

Every member tries to cater her national interest first rather than those of SADC

Before 1993 COMESA was known as the Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa- P.T.A. The heads of member states met in Kampala Uganda on 61h November 1993 and signed a treaty which created COMESA. A member of COMESA includes Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Lesotho Botswana, Swaziland, Mauritius, Comoro, Djibouti, Ethiopia Somalia and South Africa.

Promoting and facilitating cooperation among member countries in trade, trade, transport and communication.

Harmonizing and coordinating development strategies, policies and plans within the region

It encourages cooperation in monetary and financial affairs in order to facilitate sub regional integration.

It aims at establishing joint industrial and agricultural institution to raise the production capacity.

It aims at reducing and eventually eliminating tariffs among members in order to facilitate trade

It encourages economic independence of the region by establishing strong economic base

Member states have become more cooperative in the field of trade of trade, industry and agriculture.

The organization has also established a bank known as the trade and development bank situated in Bujumbura Burundi which finances trade and development projects

Different levels of development of member states

Poor transport shipping facilities and communication links

Existence of too many currencies in the region

Weak economic base of member states ie dependency economies

Civil wars, natural calamities and neo colonialism

The Reasons Which Made Tanzania Withdraw From COMESA:
As shown earlier Tanzania withdrew from COMESA in 2002. There are various reasons which made this country move out of the organization.

Firstly, Tanzania was discouraged by political conflicts in Zimbabwe and Civil war in Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. She realized there could not be effective economic co-operation with the members which had these problems at the moment.

Secondly, the country wanted to maximize her efforts in some organizations like East African Community which was formed in early 2000s’. The government could not be able to unite fully with other EAC if she was still a member in many other organizations.

Thirdly, Tanzania withdrew from COMESA because she was avoiding duplication of regional co-operation. The country learnt that there was no new benefits the people could get from COMESA. Most of the benefits were similar with those which were gained from SADC and EAC.

Fourthly, financial contributions to various economic organizations became a burden on the government expenditure. The country could not be able to collect and spend money in many organizations like SADC, EAC, AU and COMESA. Withdrawal from COMESA was a way to reduce financial cost on regional co-operation

Fifthly, Tanzania moved out of COMESA as a way to protect its industrial development from other COMESA members such as Kenya, South Africa and Zimbabwe. This country still lagged behind in industries. She feared that those countries could use many opportunities in regional co-operation to export manufactured goods which could compete against the products from Tanzania industries. Thus, she withdrew to protect domestic industries and their markets.
All the points given above could explain the possible reasons which made Tanzania move out of COMESA in 2002

The economic community of west Africa was found on 28thi may 1975, member states includes Guinea ,Ivory Coast ,Mauritania ,Senegal ,Benin ,Mali ,Niger ,Burkina Faso ,Gambia, Ghana ,Sierra Leon ,Liberia, Guinea Bissau, Togo, Cameroon ,Cape Verde and Nigeria.

ECOWAS aimed at removing barriers and allowing free movement of people services and capital for the development of the member states.

It aims at developing industries, agriculture and mining by using good and applicable policies.

The organization has managed to set energy resource development fund for oil mining industry in the region.

There have been agriculture and communication development of the whole part of the region this has been through special fund to develop the projects and through joint ventures between members.

Each member wants to benefit more than the other members of the community according to their interests.

Political instability affects member states, there have been civil wars and coup d’état in ‘the region e.g. Nigeria, Sierra Leon, Liberia, Ivory Coast etc.

Poor communication network system in many parts of the region hinders organization activities to all places

Language differences, other members are using English others French, this causes communication barrier between members.

Lack of a single currency creates the problem of the rate of exchange between the member states.

The problem of members to have a membership in more than one organization, all the organization have demands in terms of contributions i.e. it’s difficult to contribute membership to all the organizations due to poverty.

The world international organizations are referred as co-operation between the countries which exist in the world between various continents. This sub-topic intends to examine the origin objectives and the way African countries have joined and benefited from the world international organizations popularly mentioned as the United Nations, Common wealth of Nations, the French Community and Non —Aligned Movement (NAM).

United Nations (UN)
United Nation (UN) is an organization of the world independent countries which was formed to promote and maintain international peace and security after the failure of the League of Nations in the prevention of the rise of the Second World War of 1939-1945.

The charter of the formation of UN was originally drawn by the representatives of 50 countries in San Francisco USA on 26th June - 1945. But the representatives made the charter on the basis of the ideas and proposal given out by the delegates from China, USSR, UK and U.S.A in 1944. After its formation Poland immediately signed the charter and became one of the original 51 member states of the UN.

The UN officially came into existence on 24th October —1945 when the charter was formally approved by China, France, the Soviet Union (USSR) UK (Britain) and USA and by a majority of other countries. Its headquarters today are in New York USA and the United Nations day is always celebrated on 24thOctober each year.

Objectives of United Nations
Objectives of UN are all the desired ends which UN intends to achieve as the members work together as world independent states. Objectives are:
Maintain peace and security internationally.

Develop friendly relations among nations.

Encourage international co-operation in solving economic, social, political and humanitarian problems.

Promote international respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

UN becomes a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in attainment the objectives

The Principles of UN
The principles are guidelines of UN as it works to achieve its goals. The principles are:
All its member states are sovereign and equal.

All its members have to fulfill in good faith the charter obligations

All its member countries have to solve international conflicts peacefully without jeopardizing peace, security and justice.

Members must avoid the threat or use of force against other states.

Members should provide any help in the action it takes.

Members should not give help to any nation being under punitive measures.

Non members have to act according to these principles in order to maintain world peace and security.

UN should not interfere in internal matters of any nation:

The Organs of UN
There are important organs through which UN performs its duties such organs include.
(a)The UN General Assembly: - This is an organ made by all member states. All member states always have one vote regardless of size and powers. Decisions on issues require two thirds of members votes. It functions are:
Recommends on the world peace, security, disarmament and regulation of armament

Discuss any matter which endangers peace and security.

Elects non-Permanent members of security council and Judge of International court of justice jointly with the security Council

The latest UN General Assembly took place in September, 2004, in New York, U.S.A

(b) Secretariat — it is an organ which is headquartered in New York, USA. It contains international civil servants under the leadership of the General secretary who is appointed by the General Assembly on the basis of recommendations by the Security Council.
There have been several General Secretaries since the creation of this organ. These officials by their names included:
Trygve Lief of Norway from 1946-1952.
Dag Hammarskjold of Sweden from 1953-1 961.
UThantMyanmar(Burma) 1961-1971.
Kurt Waldheim of Austria from 1972-1981.
Javier de Perez de Cuellar of Peru from 1982-1991.
Boutros Bountros —Ghali of Egypt from 1992-1996.
Kofi Anan of Ghana from 1997-2006
Ban Ki-Moon of South Korea from 2007 to the present until the appointment of new secretary.

The Secretariat carries out important functions such as:
i.    It administers peace keeping operations in many countries which have wars and conflicts.

ii.    It implements the decisions of the General Assembly and the Security Council.

iii.    Informs the world’s communications media about the work of United Nations.

iv.    It mediates international disputes.

v.    Interprets speeches and translate documents into the UN’s official languages.

vi.    It draws annual budget of the UN

(c) The Security - It an organ which makes decisions that bind all other UN members. Before 1963 the council had only eleven members of which 6 members were elected by the General Assembly for a two years terms and there was also five permanent members. After 1963 the number of members increased to fifteen including the permanent members such as Britain, USA, France, USSR and China and Ten Non-Permanent members continued to be elected for two years terms.

The UN Secretary Council has a veto vote in which all the decisions can not be passed unless all five permanent members approve the decisions. When any permanent member casts a “No” vote the decision automatically get blocked. This situation creates dissatisfaction among other members; today they demand more enlargement of the permanent membership seat so as to include many countries from Africa, Asia, and Latin America in deciding matters of the UN. They also recommend the elimination of veto which is used to defend the interests of few people.

The functions of UN Security Council are:
Maintain international peace and security in line with the principles and purposes of the United Nations.

To investigate any conflict or situation which can lead to international war

To formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armament.

To persuade members of UN to fix sanctions on the aggressive states.

Takes military actions against the aggressors.

Recommends the admission of new members.

Recommends the appointment of the secretary - General to the UN General Assembly.

Works with the General Assembly to elect the judges of International court of Justice.

(d) International court of Justice- This is a court of 15 judges who are elected by the General Assembly and Security Council. It has headquarters at Hague, Netherlands. Its judges are elected for 9 years. The court normally deals with all matters of the UN charter. However, the decisions only advise the General Assembly and the Security Council.

(e) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) - It is an organ which works through UN specialized agencies and other autonomous bodies in the UN system. It promotes high standard of living, economic and social development as well as respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. There are several UN specialized agencies under ECOSOC. Some of those institutions include:
(i) FAQ - (Food and Agriculture organization) was founded in Quebec, Canada on 16th October, 1945

(ii) ILO — (International Labour organization) - It was firstly formed under the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. It allied with UN as specialized agency to raise up the living standard of the workers.

(ii) UNESCO - (The UN International Children and Education Fund). It was founded in December1946 to provide care for children.

(iv) WHO — (The World Health organization). It was founded on 7th —April —1947 as autonomous organization to improve health for all people in the world. Its head office is in Paris, France . It has worked under ECOSOC to eliminate health problems in the world.

(v) UNHCR - (The UN High Commission For Refugees). It started in 1951 to help people who are forcefully shifting their nations as refugees.

(vi) UNCTAD - (The Conference on Trade and Development). It began on 20th December, 1994 to promote international trade

(vii) UNDP - (The UN Development Programme it was formed in 1965

(viii) UNIDO — (The UN Industrial Development Organization) it was made in 1967 to promote industries.

(ix) GATT — (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) it was made in order to make the developed world fix lower tariffs and fair prices of products from developing countries.

(f) Trusteeship Council -It was an organ which was formed in 1945 to supervise the administration of the Trust territories .taken from the Mandate status of the League of Nations .The aim of the trusteeship council was to prepare the trust territories such as Tanganyika, Rwanda Burundi and Namibia for their self- government and independence. The council was allowed to examine and discuss the reports from the administering authority on the political, social and economic progress of people in the territories. The members of the council were, all. five permanent members of the Security council such as China, France, Russia, United Kingdom and U.S.A. The council suspended its duties on 1st, November, 1994 when Palau, the last remaining trust territory achieved independence on 1St November-1994.

The Achievements of UN
Since the creation of UN there have been several achievement reached by this organization. They included:
UN has assisted many countries in the struggle for independence. Many countries which are members of UN were helped by the organization in the elimination of colonialism. UN worked tirelessly in ending apartheid in South Africa. It put economic sanctions, arms embargo to the white regime. The United Nations General Assembly even called apartheid a crime against humanity. All these efforts led to the elections in April, 1994 in which African people got a chance to participate on equal terms with the whites and followed by the formation of a majority government.

Though UN has proved failure in maintaining peace in many parts of the world, it has attempted to make peace by negotiating many peaceful settlements which ended regional disputes. For example the UN succeeded to end Iran — Iraq war, the withdrawal of soviet from Afghanistan and an end of civil war in EL Salvador.

UN has tried to promote development of people in the member states. For instance the United Nations Development programme (UNDP) and other agencies of UN carries out projects for agriculture, industry, education and environment. It is said that UNDP supports more than 5000 projects with a budget of $ 1.3 billion. UNICEF spends more than $.800 million a year on immunization, health care, nutrition and basic education in 138 countries. In areas where these projects exist they lower poverty levels.

The United Nations has been able to provide humanitarian aid to the victims of conflict in Sudan, Somalia and other states. There so many refugees who receive aid from the UN High commissioner for Refugees since 1951. It eliminates scourges of war or conflicts from the Africans.

Problems Facing the United Nations
United Nations faces many problems in its daily activities. The most significant problems include:

Non compliance of UN decisions is a problem. Some members especially developed countries like USA and Britain some times do not comply with the decisions which prevent these countries from taking action against the other states. For instance UN disapproved US invasion of Iraq but the USA and Britain could not respect the decisions. They invaded Iraq in 2003.

UN’s veto among the five permanent members of the Security Council hinders just decisions and course of action. When one of its members cast a veto vote all the decisions get blocked. This has been used by the big powers to serve their own interests as opposed to the general interests of the members.

There have been inter-states and civil wars among the members. For example the war between Tanzania and Uganda in 1979 destroyed many properties. Civil wars have occurred in Rwanda in 1994, Liberia in 1997 and Southern Sudan for a long period of time. Many people have lost their life.

Though the UN give humanitarian aid to improve the living standards of people, the organization still has mainly third world countries which suffer from poverty which endangers peace and security in the world.

Benefits of United Nations to African States
African states benefit from being members of the United Nations. The benefits, which can be, shown below are:

Many African states which do not have enough food for their people in some parts of Their countries receive food aid from the World Food Programme (WFP) of the UN. This assistance has been given to the people in Somalia and Sudan.

African states normally attempt to improve health standards of their people through vaccination services which are conducted by the World Health Organization under the United Nations. In the present UNAIDS gives fund to fight against HIV/AIDS in African states.

African states receive financial help from UNDP to invest in sectors of education and water services.

The UN Security Council always sends forces to keep peace, order and end violence in areas which have civil wars. For example UN peace keeping forces have been sent to Liberia and Democratic Republic of Congo to keep peace in these countries between 1995 and 2005.

UNO provides a platform to African states to air out their grievances against the mistreatments which are done over the people by the developed world. It can be used to influence policies of big powers to Africa.

The United Nations is very important organization for the countries in the world. Though it provides aid to African states and other countries outside Africa many member states complain against the UN. They see it as an organization which mainly works in favour of USA and European countries. UN has been found to take very slow action to solve problems in Africa. It neglected the civil war in Rwanda where about 800 000 people were killed by the rebels in 1994. Even the General Secretary, Kofi Anan admitted that UN had no active measures to end civil war in Rwanda. It normally carries out quick actions to end the crises in European countries. It can not be effective organization unless the UN treats all its members equally and conducts its functions fairly in all its organs.

Common Wealth of Nations — Is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states mostly formed by the UK (Britain) arid its former colonies. The members of common wealth recognize Queen Elizabeth II as the head of the common wealth.

Its Origin
The Common wealth originated from the Imperial Conference of the late 1920’s which recognized the colonies which had self-government within the British Empire. Such colonies were Canada, Australia and New Zealand. They were considered as equal in status with Britain. In 1931 Britain made a statute of West Minster to establish Common wealth as an association of free and equal states and membership based on common allegiance to the British Crown. Many countries joined after Independence though many think it is after British imperialism.

Its Principles
The principles were given out by the Declaration of Commonwealth in the summit held in Singapore in 1972.The principles are:

They believe and accept that peace and order are essential to the security and success of mankind.

They put beliefs in liberty of individuals and equal rights for all people.

Recognize discrimination as an evil in the member countries.

Oppose all forms of colonial exploitation and discrimination in the members.

They believe absence of equality in wealth create social tensions. So they are committed to development and improve the living standard.

Attain free flow of international trade for all countries.

Promote international co-operation and tolerance.

Maintain the security of each member from foreign aggression.

Promote the exchange of knowledge, ideas on education, culture, economic and legal matters.

Its Organs
Common Wealth has 4 organs including:
(a) The Secretariat — It was made in 1965. It has been based in London. It is headed by Secretary General elected by heads of the government. Since it started it has been headed by secretaries such as: Anorld Smith, Shadrack Raphael, Emeka Anyaouku from Nigeria and Don Mckinnon, from New Zeland in 2004.

The secretariat is the main body far the exchange of information among the members and solving various problems. It functions through several branches such as:

International Affairs — which deals with matters like democratic practices in many countries.

Economic Affairs Division - which is concerned with trade, finance, and industrializing the members.

Science and technology — It tries to promote rural technology and energy.

Food production and rural development.

Export market Development — helps less developed nations to secure markets and improve their goods.

Arts and sports—deals with regular performance of the dancers from all members of Common Wealth in London. It also organizes all Common wealth Games.

Education - members co-operate in areas like teacher training and book production.

The common Wealth fund for technical co-operation provides fund to train personnel in sectors like agriculture and transport.

Others are Youth, Health, Law and Information.

(b) Common wealth heads of Government Meeting — it contains presidents or prime ministers. They meet for a week after every two years to discuss political problems and economic affairs. Then establish consensus on various matters.

(c) Ministerial Meeting — It is composed of ministers of member states. They meet to consult on issues. The foreign ministers meet before heads of state. Ministers of Finance meet annually. Ministers of Education Health and law also meet to discuss matters of co-operation.

(d) High Commissioners — they work as ambassadors to countries they are posted.

Members of common wealth
Many ex-British colonies are members with exception of Mozambique which was ruled by the Portuguese but joined Common wealth in 1995. Zimbabwe was firstly suspended in 2002 over concerns with unfair elections and land reform policies of Robert Mugabe’s ZANU — PF. The Government of Zimbabwe left completely in 2003 after Britain Australia and other members condemned its policies. United States, Egypt and Israel do not show interest in joining the common wealth in spite of being ex-British colonies.

Most of the members share similar culture such as the use of English language, the common law system and wigged judges in courts. British system of administration and driving on the left side of the roads. Currently there are 59 members in the world.
Table: Common Wealth Members by 2004 and the Year they Joined




The Benefits of Common Wealth to Tanzania
Tanzania expands markets and sources of foreign currency because normally members charge low tariff on the export from common wealth.

It provides a chance to Tanzania to join international forums for discussion of social, economic and political problems.

Tanzania get aid and services of the division of the secretariat of Common wealth. For example economic affairs division deals with industrial problems in Tanzania while common wealth Youth programmes help to train some youth leaders and officials in Community development.

Tanzania sportsmen and women and those who participate in different games get a chance to promote their talents by participating in common wealth games. They can also get some money for their own life.

Problems in the Common Wealth
Some problems are facing common wealth countries. These problems include:

Civil war in Sierra Leone in 2000 led to the loss of lives. The war still made it impossible for Sierra Leone to unite with others against political, social and economic problems.

Poverty especially in African and Asian states create situations in which majority the people cannot get adequate income education, water and health services.
Britain’s domination over other members has prevailed since the creation of Common Wealth. Britain has had much power in making decision and determining major actions by the members. All the members conduct their ways of life according to the British culture; former colonial master

Poor leadership has existed in many member countries. Many leaders especially in Africa tend to mismanage the economy of their nations by using the national income for their private personal gains. An example of such leaders is Mr. Chiluba the ex-president of Zambia was accused of the misuse of money during his rule.

Multiple memberships among the member states such as Tanzania have membership in SADC, EAC and AU. Members like Tanzania can stressfully participate in this organization.

It is an organization that is made by francophone countries which once were French colonies in Africa. It was formed on 14thJune1 960 by the French president: Charles De Gaulle to encourage self-government of the French colonies in association with France.

Its Members
Many of its members were ruled by France. They include: Algeria, Mauritania, Bourkinafaso (Upper Volta), Nigeria, Central African Republic, Togo, Congo Brazzavile, Benin, Guinea Conakry, Cameroon, Mali, Chad, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Senegal, Morocco and Tunisia.

Its Origin
It started after 1945 when France realized that the struggle for independence in Africa could destroy French colonialism. France decided to strengthen its rule by making The French Union in 1946 as a way to delay the struggle for independence.

The French Union — turned all colonies part of France. They were called Over seas Territories of France. They were allowed to send representatives to French parliament and all the people became citizens of France. They were allowed to form political parties and trade union to defend African rights.

In 1958 France made Franco —African Community which had features such as:
France became the head of the community.

Each member had to be independent and be responsible for domestic matters.

France had to be responsible for matters in trade, foreign policy, finance, higher education, justice, defense and telecommunications. France had more powers than its colonies in this community.

Franco-African Community was not supported by African colonies because they were demanding full independence. On 14th — June- 1960 France made a constitution which established THE FRENCH COMMUNITY which had features such as:-

It allowed full independence of the colonies

Each country had to be full responsible with its internal and foreign policy. All countries were allowed to cooperate with France through bilateral agreements in finance, defense, trade, higher education, Justice and telecommunication. The community has existed since 1960 to the present.

Benefits of French Community to its Members:
Members were given preferential terms of trade with France. They could export crops and minerals to France.

Members receive French exports but in projects determined by France.

France provides loans and grants.

All in all France is more developed nation. It is likely that it benefits more than others. Firstly, France gets raw materials for its industries. Secondly its members are markets from giant companies in France and thirdly France fixes lower prices to products from Africa. Its members used the franc which is France currency.

It was a movement which was mainly formed by Afro- Asian states and Yugoslavia in order to protect themselves against any exploitation, oppression and pressure from either the capitalist camp led by USA or socialist camp led by USSR during the cold war and any other imperialist nations after 1945. NAM officially started under Tito to as the chairperson in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia after efforts which had been made in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955 expressing the need for unity between Afro -Asian states.

Its Objectives or Goals
Promote economic balance between developed and dveIoping nations.

Oppose any policy which violates human rights and self awareness of all over the world.

Oppose segregation or discrimination on the basis of race.

Solve conflicts peacefully between nations.

Oppose military alliances and pacts such as NATO and Warsaw Pact led by U.S.S.R

Oppose establishments of foreign military base in the third world countries.

In September, 1998 NAM members had XII summit in Durban, South Africa. In this summit they seem to have added new objectives to the original objectives. They introduced those objectives because they experienced new problems such as terrorism, famine, AIDS, poverty, environmental destruction, changing world from two to single super power and globalization in which the rich countries require the weak nations to open boundaries for foreign investments.

The new objectives included:
Emancipation of women and respect for the rights of people such as children, Elders and disable persons.

Creation of jobs and increase of education, health and water for the people.

Eliminate corruption, and promote good governance in member countries.

Co-operate in order to remove the burden of debts on developing countries.

Maintain peace in the members and oppose terrorism in the world.

The Principles of NAM
Attain solidarity and oppose all actions which endanger independence.

All members have the right to participate in international relations on equal basis.

Members have to give support to the efforts of disarmament.

Work together with regional organizations such as SADC, COMESA, and ECOWAS.

Problems of NAM
It had members which still abused human rights for example in Uganda under ldd Amin in 1970’s many people were killed.

Poor economy among the members still exist to the present.

Civil war in many countries such as Pakistan and Indian weakened unity between the members.

Un-equal terms of trade between the members and the developed nations in the world market. Developing nations normally sell their products at low prices.

Benefits of NAM to the Members
They secure larger markets for products from agriculture and industries.

They were able to make neutral decisions which were not imposed by U.S.A. or USSR.

It helped the members to reduce dependence on western capitalist nations.

It united the developing nations in the struggle against any mistreatment from powerful nations during the period of world war.

It helped some nations such as Namibia to get her independence from the Boers.

Though NAM was formed by the states to protect themselves against the super powers and other imperialist nations the movement is still needed at this moment where the U.S.A acts as a super power of the world. The states face many problems such as unequal terms of trade with big countries, poverty, low level of technology and production in agriculture. They have to unite ad press for equal terms of trade and assist each other in technology, industries and bring social services to the people in their countries. Changes which can be made in the organization is the name ‘Non-Aligned Movement because in the matter of fact its members today are aligned with the policies of U.S.A. and western European countries.

Even the period before the late 1980’s many of the NAM members were allied to the socialist camp at the same time tried to practice non-alliance. But the situation today is worse because all members are openly linked with USA-policies. They do not have to call themselves Non-Aligned countries.


The historical roots of the European Union lie in the Second World War. The E.U. was conceived in the search for a model of European integration that would prevent such killing and destruction from ever happening again. The idea was first proposed in a speech by the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman on May 9, 1950, a date considered as the birthday of what is now the E.U.

In 1957, six European nations signed the treaty of Rome. This formed the E.E.C., popularly known as European Common Market. It actually came into existence in January 1958.

The founders of the E.E.C. were France, Italy, the Federal Republic of Germany, Holland, Luxembourg, and Belgium. Ever since then, cooperation has gradually been expanded and adapted to new challenges according to what a majority of Europeans could agree upon. The latest changes in the basic rules are contained in the 1999 Treaty of Amsterdam.

The European Union (E.U.) is currently made up of fifteen countries, namely Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Ireland, Britain, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, and Finland, and is committed to working together for peace and prosperity. They form the largest voluntary and peaceful bloc in the world: 375 million European citizens facing together the challenges of their time.

The European Union is a unique organization and more than any other international organization, its member states have gradually transferred specific powers to the European level, so that democratic decisions on questions of truly European importance can be made at the European level.

The Objectives of the European Union (E.U.)
To harmonize policies for improving the living standard of the people in the member states.

To ensure that the national business policies do not harm the other members, such as tariffs and other barriers of trade.

To encourage coordination and cooperation in trade.

To lessen political tension among its members.

To facilitate the free flow of manpower among its members.

To serve as a unifying force of the members.

To increase industrial and agriculture output to respective member countries.

Principles of the European Union
1. Elimination of customs duties.

2. The establishment of a common customs tariffs.

3. The abolition of obstacles for freedom of movement of people, services, and capital.

4. The adoption of a common agricultural policy.

5. The adoption of a common transport policy.

6. The institution of a system safeguarding fair competition.

7. The coordination of economic policies.

8. The coordination of relevant laws of member states.

9. The creation of a European Social Fund.

10. The establishment of a European investment bank.

11. An association of overseas countries.

Institutions of the European Union
1. The European Parliament (E.P.) is a democratic voice of the people of Europe with 626
     members. The principal roles of the E.P. are

The examination and approval of European legislation so that it enjoys equal footing with the council, through the power of co-decision.

Approving the E.U. budget.

The exercise of democratic control over the other E.U. institutions, including the power to set up committees of inquiry.

The E.P. must agree to important international agreements such as the accession of new member states to the E.U. and to trade or association agreements between the E.U. and third countries.

The E.P. has created the Sakharov Prize which is awarded annually to an individual or group that has defended the cause of human rights anywhere in the world. The parliament elects the European Ombudsman, who investigates complaints from citizens about maladministration in the E.U. Miss Nicole Fontaine is the President of the European Parliament (from 2000-2005).

2. The Council of the European Union:
It was formerly known as the Council of Ministers. This is the main legislative and decision-making body in the E.U. It brings together the representatives of the government of the fifteen member states who are elected at national level. Its objectives are:

Establishment of internal market and other common policies. This will guarantee four freedoms of movement: goods, persons, services and capital.

Responsibility for intergovernmental cooperation.

Deals with areas of common foreign and security policy, as well as of justice and home affairs. Presently Mr. Javier Solana is the High Representative for common foreign and security policy (from 2000-2005).

3. The European Commission:
This is the driving force for the E.U. The European Commission consists of twenty women and men.

It does much, of the day-to-day work in the European Union.

It drafts proposals for the European laws, which it presents to the European Parliament and the Council.

The commission looks after the practical execution of E.U. actions and of the E.U. budget.

It also ensures that everyone abides by the European treaties and European laws.

The President is chosen by the governments of the EU member states and must be approved by the European Parliament. The Commission is appointed for a five —year term, but it can be dismissed by the Parliament. Mr. Romano Prodi was a President of the European Commission (from 2000-2005).

4. Court Justice:
This upholds the law, it interprets laws, settles disputes over European Union treaties, and interprets legislation. It consists of fifteen independent judges and has its seat in Luxembourg.

5. European Court of Auditors:
The Court of Auditors an independent E.U. institution with its seat in Luxembourg, is the body which controls the way E.U. money is spent. In effect, these auditors help European tax payers to get better value for the money that has been channeled into the E.U.

6. The European Central Bank:
The European Central Bank is in charge of managing the new common currency, the Euro. The bank decides independently on European monitory policy. The main objective is to ensure price stability, so that the European economy will not be damaged by inflation. The European Central Bank is based in Frankfurt, Germany.

7. European Investment Bank:
This bank lends money for investment projects of European interest, in particular, projects that benefit less well-off regions. It finances rail links, motorways etc. These help to create jobs and growth. Loans support the E.U.’s enlargement process as well as its development aid policy. The bank is based in Luxembourg and it raises its funds on the capital markets.

8. The Economic and Social Committee:   
Ranging from employers to the trade union and from consumers to ecologists, the members of the Economic and Social Committee represents all of the most important interest in the E.U. It is an advisory committee with 222 members and deliver opinions on the importance of new E.U. initiatives. This is part of the common European tradition to involve civil society in political life.

9. The Committee of the Regions:
This is an organ through which local and regional authorities are consulted before the E.U. makes decisions in various fields, such as education, health, employment, or transport. The Committee has 222 members who are often leaders of regions.

Achievements of the European Union
Creation of a single currency for Europeans called the Euro. The cooperation of European countries has led to the creation of the Euro. This has made it easier to travel and compare prices and common currency has boosted stable environments for businesses and stimulated trade growth and competitiveness. The countries which adopted the Euro are Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Greece, Austria, Portugal, and Finland. Euro bank notes and coins officially became currency on January 1, 2002. Britain, Sweden, and Denmark have refrained from using it as their official currency.

Freedom of movement: Thanks to the E.U., citizens of the E.U. are able to travel without carrying passports and without being stopped for checks at the boarders. They are able to work wherever they want in the fifteen European Union countries. The E.U. works constantly to expand the freedom of government as a new fundamental right for citizens and to get rid of all discrimination based on nationality.

Promotion of education facilities: E.U. actions are designed to open up access to learning opportunities for everyone, at home and abroad, through partnership, exchange schemes, and the removal of bureaucratic obstacles. The E.U. does not decide what one learns in school, but it does work to ensure that one’s educational and professional qualifications are properly recognized in other E.U. countries.

Keeping the peace: This unity has created a situation in which war between E.U. countries is now unthinkable. With this success, the E.U. countries now also work increasingly together to help preserve peace and stability in neighbouring countries. Europeans now settle their differences through peaceful means, applying the rule of law and seeking reconciliation. The spirit of superiority and discrimination has been banished from relationships between the member states, which have been entrusted to four community institutions: the Council, the Parliament, the Commission, and the Court of Justice. These have the responsibility for mediating their conflicts, for defining the general interest of Europeans, and for pursuing common policies.

Sponsoring peace-keeping negotiations: It has been a joint effort of the E.U. countries to prevent conflicts. Thus, the E.U. is the biggest donor of financial assistance to troubled places in the world, including Yugoslavia, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Burundi. In these areas, it has been active in peace-keeping and peace-making actions, and it runs many projects that help to make human rights and democracy succeed in practical terms.

Common voice in international affairs: Through common foreign and security policy, E.U. countries can speak with one voice in all questions in world politics and there are plans to develop a common defence policy. Exactly how this will be organized has yet to be determined.

Assurance of freedom, security, and justice. EU. countries have made joint efforts to combat threats to freedom, safety, security, and justice. Presently there are international organizations to decimate drug misuse and trafficking in human beings (e.g. the illegal exploitation of foreign women as prostitutes). The E.U. countries are determined to fight these menaces at all levels through common rules and through cooperation between police, customs, and the judiciary. The E.U. also plays a role in asylum and migration policy. The E.U. also has guaranteed the Right to seek asylum. It has coordinated the member states for refugees and helped to combat poverty and prevent conflicts in the countries from people who want to flee.

Creation of job opportunities: E.U. has been taking pains to safeguard employment in Europe and create job opportunities with a fair and conducive atmosphere of work. The steps taken have created a single market without internal frontiers and a single currency (the Euro). It has boosted trade. The major aim has been to transform growth into more and better jobs. The E.U. is also trying to create jobs through training and education, a spirit of entrepreneurship, adaptability to new working methods, and equal opportunities for everyone. A third of the whole E.U. budget is taken up by the structural funds which promote growth and jobs in less well-off regions, in order to ensure that wealth in Europe is more evenly-distributed.

Technological advancement: The E.U. has been active in assisting European research to obtain scientific excellence. The E.U. has financed projects undertaken by research centres, academia, and industry. The emphasis has been placed on research and innovation to achieve precise socio-economic objectives, such as job creation, improved quality of life, and increased personal mobility. The E.U.’s research priorities include health, the environment, energy, transport, training, and the information society. The E.U. has promoted new technology to be used in every day life. Due to E.U. decisions on the technical standards of G.S.M., Europeans are now world leaders in the use and manufacture of mobile telephones.

A green and sustainable environment: The European Union has made joint efforts to protect the environment of member states from pollution. That is why the E.U. has adopted over 2000 environmental protection directives that are applied in all member states. Most of the directives are designed to prevent air and water pollution and encourage waste disposal. The E.U. has planned that transport, industry, agriculture; fisheries, energy, and tourism are to be organized without destroying their natural resources. The success is visible, for since the E.U. decision in the 1 990s to put catalytic converters into all cars and to get rid of the lead added to petrol, the air has been cleaner.

People’s standard of living has improved considerably, much more than would have been possible if each national economy had not been able to benefit from the economies of scale and the gains of growth stemming from the common market and the intensification of trade.

Thanks to the E.U., at international level, the European Union is yielding increasing influence commensurate with its economic importance, the standard of living of its citizens, and its place in diplomatic, commercial and monetary affairs.

The European Union has derived its strength from its common value of democracy and human rights, which rallies its people. It has preserved the diversity of cultures and the traditions which makes it what it is. Its trans-Atlantic solidarity and the attractiveness of its model had enabled a united Europe to withstand the pressure of totalitarianism and to consolidate the rule of law. Hence, the European Union stands as beacon for the expectations of countries near and far that watch the Union’s progress with interest as they seek to consolidate their re-emerging democracies or rebuild a ruined economy.

There has been establishment of a common market in different sectors, including agriculture. This has boosted trade among member states.

The E.U. has also helped to transfer resources from richer to poorer members through a regional development fund.

Challenges to the European Union
Unity in diversity: The most serious challenge facing the E.U. is to abide by its values while at the same time safeguard them. Furthermore, it must consider how far could and should union be ordered to maximize the strength which derives from unity, without at the same eroding identity and destroying the individual ethos which makes the richness of their nations, regions, and cultures.

Refusal of some member states to adopt common currency: Up to January 1, 1999, 11 of the European union countries had adopted the Euro: Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, and Finland. Others such as Sweden and Britain have not agreed. Thus, existence of different currencies complicates the transactions.

Unemployment: Though there have been joint effort to fight against unemployment, E.U. member states still have to face the problems of unemployment.

Economic disparity: Member states of the E.U. have no equal levels of development and the per capital income of people in every country is not the same. For instance, in Germany, the former Eastern German people still have a poorer income rate and their living standard is still lower compared to those of former Western Germany.

Illegal trade: These include drug misuse, trafficking in human beings, and illegal exploitation of foreign women for prostitution. Some Europeans buy women for the sake of employing them as prostitutes. These are bought from Africa and Eastern Europe (e.g. Moldova).

Environmental problems: Since member states of the E.U. are the most industrialized countries in the world, member states are faced with environmental pollution such as air, water, and soil pollution.

Neo-nazism: Some of the Europeans do not like immigrants, for they see them as the ones taking their employment opportunities. For instance, Jorge Haider of Austria is fighting against the immigrants and he campaigns that stringent measures should be established to restrict them, they are a source of social evils (theft, unemployment, prostitution, poverty, etc.) Moreover, member states of the E.U. differ on points regarding the admission of the immigrants and rights of asylum.

Inability of the E.U. to solve certain conflicts and keep peace in some parts of Europe. The E.U. has failed to reconcile the ever-long existing strife in Northern Ireland. The member of Irish Republican Army (I.R.A.) do not see eye-to-eye with the British government. Likewise, the tragedy of Kosovo (1999-2000) in Yugoslavia has highlighted the point that the European Union has not yet guaranteed security and democracy in Europe.

Obstacles on freedom of movement and non- cooperation in judicial affairs: The member states differ in civil laws and procedures, resulting in some obstacles to free movement. There is still poor cooperation between the criminal courts and between police forces in different member states.

World economic crises and world depressions have led to a slowing down in the progress of the E.U.

Tanzania and the European Union
Tanzania has a close relation with the European Union via the Lome Convention. The Lome Convention came into existence in 1975 when 46 former colonies in Africa, Caribbean, and the Pacific (A.C.P.) countries concluded a covenant with the E.U. in Lome, Togo. Tanzania was one of the signatories. The convention was implemented on April 1, 1976.
Under the Lome Convention, the A.C.P. countries received associate status in the E.U.. Through cooperation, the A.C.P. states benefited in fields of finance, trade, and industries, including:
Protection of A.C.P. industries
This provision covers two main areas
The A.C.P. countries can impose tariffs against the industrial products from the E.U. to protect A.C.P. industries.
The E.U. provides technical training and advice to A.C.P. countries.
Trade cooperation
• Free access into the E.U., free of customs duty, and other charges.
• Regular consultation on all matters affecting trade between the A.C.P. and the E.U.
• E.U conducts basic training and advanced vocational training in trade promotion for the A.C.P. states’ staff.

Stabilization of Export Earnings (STABEX)
Under this umbrella, the E.U. guarantees the stability of the earnings from the A.C.P. exports. This envisages the products, mostly raw materials, on which the A.C.P. economies depend, and which experience price and quantity fluctuations. These entail groundnuts and its products, cocoa, coffee, cotton, coconuts, palm kernel, and nuts, tea, etc. The procedure is that if the earnings from an A.C.P. country’s export fall below 7.5% of the previous year, the country gets a subsidy. For the twenty poorest of the forty-six A.C.P. countries, the limit is lowered to 2.5%. Moreover, the others have to pay back the subsidy if they make a profit later. However, the poorest twenty countries do not have to do so.
Other provisions include:
Through the current convention, the A.C.P. group has more control over the E.U. Development Fund than formerly.
The A.C.P. countries may enter into an equally favourable agreement with other industrialized countries, or even with developing countries.
Any A.C.P country can pull out of the Lome Convention if the agreement is no longer satisfactory.
Advantages of the Lome Convention
i.    All the A.C.P. states can earn more stable incomes from their exports of raw material. They are now less vulnerable to price fluctuations.

ii.    The A.C.P. countries have greater access to the grants and aid from the E.U.

iii.    It is possible for any A.C.P. country to leave this arrangement if it so wishes.

Geographical Location of Africa and the Middle East
Africa is a continent which is mainly formed by the black people and Arabs in northern African countries such as Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan and Tunisia while the Middle East is largely a region in Asia made up of Arab countries like Saudi Arabia, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Iraq, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Palestine which is not normally indicated on the world map.

This TOPIC is intended to examine the Middle East conflicts between Israel and Palestine as well as showing the position of Africa in these conflicts.

The Origin of the Conflicts
The origin of the conflicts between Israel and Palestine is traced from 14th May 1948 when the Jews Christians declared a republic of Israel and made Tel Aviv the capital of their new nation on Palestine. Before the declaration of Israel as a state of its own the Jews were scattered and lived in many western and Eastern European countries without a recognized motherland. They had been prosperous traders and scientists and industrialists in many European countries-A turning point in their life was in 1 882 when the Jews created
Zionism in Constantinople, Turkey as a movement which intended to unite all the Jews to struggle to create their own nation.

In 1897 a famous Jew known as Theodor HrzI who lived in Austria convened a meeting of the Zionists in Basle, Switzerland. In this meeting they resorted to establish a Jewish settlement and a state in the Palestinian land because they claimed that historical narratives and literature showed that Jews and their ancestors originated from the area where Palestinians lived. Then, they began td migrate slowly into Palestine. They also persuaded European countries to support them in their efforts to create their new state in this land. In this period of 19th Century. Palestine and other Arab countries were colonies of Turkey.

When the First World War occurred from 1914 to 1918 Turkey was defeated by the British and their allies. Its colony of Palestine was eventually made a mandate colony under the League of Nations which appointed Britain to administer and prepare the Palestinians for self —rule since 3rd May —1923. When Britain took over Palestine the British government together with U.S.A supported the Jews immigration and occupation of land in Palestine. While their number was increasing the Palestinian’ Arabs opposed strongly the coming of the Jews and demanded the British government to put obstacles to the Jews immigration.

In 1939 there was eruption of the Second World War which ended in 1945. Britain, Russia, France and the assistance from U.S.A. fought against Germany, Italy, Austria, Japan and their allies. Britain’s camp won the War but it suffered from destruction of industries, infrastructure and social hardships with exception of U.S.A. which did not experience the war on American soil. When the war was taking place about 1 million Jews in Germany were hated and killed by Adolph Hitler’s government under Nazi Party. After the war many Jews survivors in Germany moved to Palestine as a place of refuge and pledged to them a Jewish homeland though the Palestinian Arabs were still opposed to their arrival in the Middle East. As shown above the problem of the war in Britain did not put this country in a position to administer and settle down the opposition of Palestinians against the Jews occupation of Arab land for settlements and production of crops such as bananas and vines.

Two years after the formation of United Nations in 1945 Britain withdrew from Palestine officially. This was on 4th —February —1947 when the British Foreign Minister, Ernest Bevin handled all matters of Palestine on behalf of the British government to the United Nations which continued to work with U.S.A to support the existence of the Jewish state in Palestine.
In seeking a solution to the problems between the Jews and Palestinians the UN appointed a commission known as UNSCOP to recommend the proper ways of settling the state of affairs between the Jews and the Arabs Its recommendations which were given to the UN General Assembly in 1947 resolved to partition Palestine without any persuasion of the Arab states, into areas which had to be occupied by the Jews. Those areas on the West Bank of River Jordan had to be occupied by the Palestinians and Jerusalem was made an international city. On 14th May -1948 the Jews decided to declare the state of Israel with its capital in Tel Aviv. The Jews had to protect their state on Palestine land by all means against the opposition of by the Palestinians and other Arab countries in the Middle East. Since 1948 there have been many conflicts in which both sides claim Palestine to be the motherland.

The Characteristics of the Conflicts Between Israel and the Arabs
The characteristics of these conflicts have been wars and economic sanctions between Israel and Palestinians as well as other Arab countries which oppose the existence of the nation of Israel. There have been several wars between Israel and the Palestinian people as follows:
The first war happened in 1948 to 1949. It erupted immediately after the proclamation of the republic of Israel by the Jews on Palestine. It was waged by Palestinians together with the support from Iraq, Egypt, Syria and Jordan to fight and eliminate Israel from the Arab world. Surprisingly Israelis defeated the Arabs and expanded the territory by taking the western part of the Negev desert which had not been given to the Jews in the partition plan made up by the UN in 1947. The war was also used by Israel to make many of the Palestinian Arabs move as refugees to Lebanon and Syria.

After the war the Arab countries allied with Palestinian refugees to resist the new nation of Israel. For instance Egypt had to block the port of Eilat which was the only Israel outlet into the Red sea. She refused to allow Israel’s trade ships through the Suez Canal so as to weaken the economy of the Jews. The Arab League of 1945 imposed economic sanctions against Israel. The members stopped trade with Israel and boycotted all Israeli ships and planes which called at ports and airports. In 1950’s the Palestinian refugees in the neighboring Arab states formed a military organization known as “fedayeen” which carried raids on Israel from the Gaza strip and Sinai under Egypt.

In the late October and early November 1956 there was a second war popularly known as the Suez War in which Israel fought against Egypt led by colonel Gama Abdel Nasser. Israel fought this war in order to destroy “fedayeen” raiders Israelis and free the port of Eilat from blockade by the Egyptians. Israel received much weapons from Britain and France which gave, it support as revenge to Egypt which had assisted the nationalist fighters against the French rule in Algeria. Czechoslovakia only provided fighter planes, bombers and heavy tanks to help the Egyptians defeat Israel. In the end Israel defeated Egypt and captured Sinai and the Gaza strip from Egypt.

The United Nations promised to prevent raids into Israel from the Gaza strip and to stop threats to Israel ships on the Red sea and Suez Canal. In March 1957 Israel soldiers decided to leave out of Sinai and the United Nations Emergency force (UNEF) took up its position in the area. Then the port of Eliat was free for Israel economic activities after 1956. The Arabs’ resistance continued to exist even after the withdraw of Israel from Gaza strip. The Palestinians decided to form “El Fatah” which was an organization that trained guerrilla fighters and carried attacks on Israel communities from its bases in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon. El Fatah gained more support from Syria government under Arab Baath Party by providing Golan Heights from where the Arabs bombarded Israel settlements.

For self defence Israel raided Syria , Jordan and Lebanon. In 1964 the El fatah Chief Yassir Arafat formed P.L.O. (Palestine Liberation Organization) which began to train terrorist military groups such as The popular Front For Liberation of Palestine under George Habash to conduct raids and hijack operations outside Israel so as to keep up pressure on the world to support the Palestinian demands on the right for the existence of their nation Palestine.

On 5th June-1 967 there was the third war which is normally referred as the Six Days war between Israel and the Arabs. It was firstly announced by Abdel Nasser. He ordered out the UN forces which had been in Sinai since 1957 and closed Straits of Tiran to Israel ships on the Red Sea. Syria, Iraq and Jordan joined Nasser to fight and eliminate the Jews from Palestine. Israel attacked first and her planes destroyed Egyptian air force on the ground, took the whole of Sinai, the Old city of Jerusalem and some parts of the west Bank of the Jordan River which had been assigned by the UN as a place for the establishment of the Palestinian state and captured the Golan Heights. The Arabs were still determined to fight to liberate their areas.

On 6th October 1973 before the Jewish festival of Yom Kippur, Egypt army crossed the Suez canal and advanced towards her lands occupied by Israel. Egypt at this moment was led by Anwar Sadat who replaced Nasser after his death in 1970. He was joined by Iraq while Syria assisted because she needed to liberate its Golan Heights. This war threatened the availability of crude oil in the developed nations like USA, Britain and Japan. So USA secretary of state Henry Kissinger mediated and succeeded to end the fighting in January 1974. In 1975 there was agreement in which Israel withdrew its soldiers from some parts of Sinai and is cargoes were allowed by Egypt to be transported through the Suez Canal. At this moment Egypt’s reaction changed from resistance to cooperation with Israel. The Israel Parliament state Egypt’s terms for a permanent settlement with the government of Likud Party which replaced the Labour Party in the elections which made Menachim Began win as a prime minister of Israel.

With the encouragement from U.S.A., Sadat and Began signed the Camp David Accord in Washington in 1979 to end the thirty years of conflicts. Then Israel accepted to withdraw completely from Sinai in 1982 and remained with small area called Gaza strip. She was guaranteed free use of Suez Canal. At this time it was clear that the imperialist nations succeeded to weaken the unity of Arabs against Israel. However all the Arabs and United Nations continued to recognize PLO as the only political organization which had to represent the demands of Palestinian Arabs in the Middle East.

After 1982 PLO bases in Palestine, Lebanon and Syria continued to train guerillas who moved from these areas to ambush the Jews settlement. Israel began land, sea and air invasion to destroy the P.L.O. guerrillas in areas where they lived. In its efforts to eliminate Palestine raiders Israel soldiers once entered Beirut the capital of Lebanon to search and kill them. Since 1990’s there have been Palestinian military groups such as Hamas which have carried out suicide attacks against the Jewish settlers communities in the Gaza strip and the west Bank of Jordan where the Palestinians have a right to establish their state independent of Israel. Currently USA and the members of United Nations work hard to seek the solutions to the conflicts between the Jews and Palestinians. Even the former prime Minister of lsrael, Benjamin Netenyau and Ariel Sharon have expressed the need to withdraw from the Palestinian land occupied during the previous wars and urge the Palestinians to stop suicide bombing on the Jews. But the conflicts and violence still take place in Jerusalem, Gaza strip and west Bank of River Jordan.

The Reasons for the Rise of Conflicts Between Israel, Palestinians and Arab Countries
There are several basic reasons which led to the rise of conflicts between these peoples in the Middle East. Such reasons include:

Proclamation of the Jewish state as Israel on Palestine was the beginning of conflicts. Palestinians and other neighbouring Arabs in Jordan, Iraq Syria, Lebanon and Egypt considered this event as colonial invasion though the Jews stressed that Palestine was their homeland in which they had to exist as a state. Unwillingness of the Arabs made them to unite and fight to eliminate Israel from the region.

Israel’s occupation of land in the wars between the Jews and the Arab states. As shown earlier Israel for instance took the Negev desert which was not given to her by UN in 1947.ln the war against Egypt the Israelis took Sinai and Gaza strip from the Egyptians and occupied Palestinian land on the west Bank of Jordan and the Old city of Jerusalem. Conflicts could not have been avoided unless Israel confined its territory only to the areas she got from the United Nations.

Religious differences between the two peoples also contributed to the rise of conflicts. The Jews are predominantly Christians while the Palestinians and the majority of Arabs are Muslim believers. The presence of the Christian Jews was seen as a threat to the development of Arabic culture particularly Islamic religion. In order to protect the growth of Islam or Christianity the concerned parties had to fight to suppress and dominate the other.

UN partition of Palestine into areas for the Jews and Arabs without the approval of the Palestinians and neighboring Arabs laid the grounds for conflicts instead of making peace between the Palestinians, Arabs and the Jews.

Racism which is a belief in the superiority complex of the colour of the skin of a certain group of people might have led to the rise of conflicts. The Jews consider themselves as the best race which was appointed by God to exist as a state of Israel to dominate other inferior people. They are always fighting to suppress and dominate the Arabs who are thought to be inferior to the Jews.

The supply of military aid to the parties cannot be over looked in the rise of conflicts. The former Eastern Socialist Bloc which included U.S.S.R and Czechoslovakia provided guns, tanks and other weapons to the Arabs in Egypt, Syria, Iraq to fight against Israel which also received weapons from capitalist block including USA, Britain and France to defeat the Arabs and defend political and economic interest of those nations in the middle east. The availability of firearms accelerated the occurrence, of violence. In summary these reasons basically explain for the hostile relations between Israel, Palestine and Arab countries.

The Position of Africa in the Conflicts of the Middle East
Africa contains some Arab countries such as Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya Morocco, Sudan, Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti which are among of twenty two members of the Arab League. Though Israel established friendly relations with many African independent states in 1960’s African countries under O.A.U. began to condemn Israel’s occupation of Arab land in Palestine and the neighbouring countries.

After the Arab-Israel war of June, 1967 the African member states of O.A.U. in the summit of the heads of states which was held in Zaire in September 1967 opposed Israel’s conquest of Sinai which was nearly one third of Egyptian land. African countries called for individual and collective steps against Israel. They resolved to impose economic sanctions on Israel until she withdrew from Arab lands. By the end of 1973 many African states had broken diplomatic relations with Israel in support of the Arabs.

There were several factors which made Africa take this particular position in the conflicts. Firstly it was the historical relations between Africa and the Middle East There had been relations which were based on economic activities such as trade which took place in the 11th Century during Trans- Saharan trade between the peoples of West Africa, North Africa and the Arabs from Middle East. The relations persisted even at the time of independence where Africa still imported oil from Middle East.

Secondly Africa had suffered from foreign occupation before the independence of 1960’s. They looked at Israelis as colonial settlers who aimed to take all Arab land and rule the people in the Middle East. They had to condemn and take action against Israel as a way of destroying this form of imperialism and liberate the Palestinian Arabs. But the support given to Israel by USA and western capitalist countries and the poor economic progress in Africa could not make the Africans succeed in these efforts against the Jews.

These conflicts endanger world peace because the oppressed Arabs will always seek violent measures against Israel and any nation in order to force the world to draw attention to the Palestinian people. Problems such as hijack, suicide attacks and bombings of Israel targets and her allies could become a permanent feature of the world today. All countries under United Nations have to bring these conflicts to an end by emphasizing coexistence and tolerance of races in the Middle East considering the claims given by the Jews and Palestinians that the region is their homeland. Israel has to withdraw from all Arab lands such as the West Bank of River Jordan and Gaza strip without putting down any barriers to the rights and freedom of the Palestinians towards Palestinian self rule.

The Palestinians’ PLO and military groups such as “Hamas” have to stop suicide attacks on the Jewish communities so that Israel can give up its armed raid on the settlement of the Palestinians. Mamood Abas the successor of the famous Palestinian leader, Yasser Arafat who died in Paris on 11thNovember2OO4, Ariel Sharon, the Prime Minister of Israel and other leaders of the Middle East countries have a challenge to know that peace and stability in the region would come from their commitment despite of the mediational help from outside.

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Literally the word scramble means a fight, scuffle or struggle for something. It has been applied in the context of Africa to refer to a sudden rush of European nations towards Africa with the aim of economic exploitation, in the later half of 19 century, which witnessed various imperialist nations trying to tear up the African continent which included Britain, France as the pioneers later joined by Germany in 1 880s, Portugal, Italy, Belgium and other European Nations.
This means to slice, to divide or to break some thing into pieces. In the contest of African continent it definitely refers to the process where by African continent was divided into pieces among the European imperialist countries into colonial possession in the last quarter of 19th century.


The Monroe doctrine, it was advanced by Monroe the president of USA by then after the American civil war of 1861- 1865 it was all about warning Europeans nations not to involve in American issues, thus turned to Africa as an alternative.

Africa was the only part in the world that had not been occupied, Britain had occupied Canada Australia New Zealand India, and thus Africa became a target to many European Nations.

Reports delivered by the agents of colonialism played also a big role for Africa to become a target they penetrated the interior and fed the imperialists the economic potentiality that is found in Africa

The availability of vast land with fertile soils in Africa also made Africa to become a target of imperialist to make abnormal profit through the exploitation of African cheap labor

Another factor that made Africa to become the target in that particular period was the new idea about colonies, had changed from mere settlement of European population to an idea of protecting industrial market by seizing colonies abroad.

The scramble of Africa reached her zenith towards the last quarter of 19th century and a result to solve the problem Africa was partitioned into colonial possession among the imperialist nations the forces behind the scramble of Africa is still appoint of contention among various Historians.
The Euro-centric historian argues that the cause for the colonization of Africa was due to humanitarian reasons i.e. to spread “civilization” in Africa, abolition of slave trade.

While the Afro- centric! Marxist historian’s refute the above argument and argue that the causes of the scramble were development of imperialism especially during the stage of industrial revolution in Europe in 1750.

1. Industrial Revolution/economic factor
Industrial revolution in Europe was the major cause of colonization of Africa; it brought contradictions within the capitalist economies whereby, Africa became a solution to solve those contradictions.

The rise of monopoly capitalism in Europe changed the industrial environment of Europe. Up to I 8770s Britain dominated the world market and it was popularly known as the worker shop of the world, because of her industrial hegemony. Her industrial supremacy was being increasingly challenged by France, USA, and Germany, the world market was becoming smaller and smaller as the industrialized countries were competing for the same market, such contradiction prompted the colonization of Africa that was a potential markets for European finished industrial goods.

It led to the rise of surplus population in Europe whereby there was unemployment, high crime rate, prostitution, insane, and idlers, that failed to fit in the new industrialized Europe thus a search for area of settlement and employment hence colonization of Africa which aimed at forestalling violent social upheavals in the capitalist countries.

Industrial revolution led to the rise of workers movement and proletariazation in Europe or trade unions like Chartism, Luddism and new model trade unions who demanded high payment, good working condition, and the reduction of working hours. This made production in Europe very expensive and fall in profits of the bourgeoisie.

Application of hostile tariffs or trade barriers within Europe, led to the abolition of free trade in 1870s as capitalism changed from competitive to monopoly stage. At this stage of capitalism it was characterized with centralization and concentration of capital that gave birth to monopolistic companies, and rise protectionism, This narrowed European markets and the solution was to come to African where super normal profits could be accumulated because raw materials could be obtained cheaply, labor was lowly paid and in most cases land was simply grabbed.

Overproduction and under consumption, in European market. Whereby the purchasing power of many European consumers was very low as compared to the level of production. In 1870s western European factories were producing so many cheap goods that were running out of people to sell them to; their home market was no longer enough to consume all the produce. The imperialists turned more and more to Africa. Thus the scramble and eventual Colonization of Africa in the last quarter of l9th century.

Scientific gains in Europe especially in the field of medicine, the discovery of quinine and chroloquine reduced the threat of malaria in Africa by imperialists hence they came and colonize Africa.

Development of state monopoly, the marriage of interest between the state and the bourgeois in the metro pole influenced the export of capital and the bourgeois state used its militarism or state power to defend investment abroad by subduing any resistance in the colony

Tendency of profit to fail in Europe. It become unprofitable to invest in the metro pole due to cut throat competition, protectionism and an Economic slump of 1873- 1893 that led to the fall of commodity prices drastically thus the cause to come in Africa where raw materials were obtained very cheaply labor was almost for free and land was in most cases simply alienated from the indigenous people.

Role of colonial agents [men on the spot] these were the colonial agents who provided the information feedback and reported the economic potentiality of Africa that persuaded their home government to come and take over African counties. These included missionaries trades and explorers, who are own as fore runners of colonialism. They were essential ingredient of the increasingly assertive European presence of imperial control in most cases Christian missionaries’ p1ayd a significant role in promoting and shaping the advent of European colonialism, especially in the last quarter of 19th. In other words they paved way for the colonization of Africa.

1. Strategic reasons
The colonization of Africa was also motivated due to strategic reasons some areas were considered more attractive economically thus led the scramble and partition of Africa. Such areas included those that possessed minerals like gold diamond, copper e.g. Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa. These areas were strongly scrambled for by the imperialist.

Accessibility to the interior: the existence of internal rivers like Congo River Lake Tanganyika take Victoria and river Nile in Uganda an Sudan up to Egypt were the epicenter of the scramble of Africa and the numerical number of the population, which would act as the potential market for Europeans goods e.g. Nigeria Senegal and Uganda were also some of the factors that accelerated intensive scrambled and partition of Africa.

Fertility of the soil, that favored cash crops areas such as Kenyan highlands. Botswana, Zimbabwe etc. and Presence of colonial agents especially missionaries who invited their home government to come to take over the colonies e.g. Mullatoes in Mozambique the missionaries in Buganda, Where also some of the strategic factors for colonization.

Numerical numbers of the population was also another strategic factor considered when struggling for colonies in Africa. Densely populated areas would work as steady market for European finished goods.

2. Prestigious reasons
The more colonies one country had the more powerful were considered, this made many European countries to scramble to get as more colonies as possible. Even less industrialized nations joined in the rush to stake a claim to part of Africa. The possession of colonies became -national prestige within Europe. This was due to fanatical nationalism in which each nation insisted on superiority’ over the other especially on the realm of military power, national prestige and wealthy, thus intensive scramble of Africa.

3. European balance of power
The issue of balance of power was considered among the major movers of the scramble and partition of Africa. Central in this issue was the unification of Germany and Italy in 1870s. The unification of Germany was a direct threat to British and French industrial domination both of which set up vigorous search for market, in Africa that later alone were followed by the Germany, thus the scramble and partition of Africa

Balance of power in Europe can be traced in 1815 during the Vienna congress that followed the fall of the French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814 in the battle of waterloo. In this meeting they agreed that all European countries were supposed to equalize militarily strength economic and political. No expansion was to be done within Europe. Therefore Africa became the area of expansion for European powers hence the colonization.

4. Development of European Nationalism.
 Every European Country saw necessary to have colonies in Africa as a symbol of Nationalism. This nationalism in Europe grew to the climax especially after the. Germany unification of 1871 after defeating France in the Franc-Prussian war hence this nationalism was accelerated much by the colonial agents that were in Africa such a state of affair made the scramble of Africa inevitable.

5. Darwinism theory and Monroe.
The strongest take over the weakest [survival of the fittest] Africa was weak and Europe was strong hence the colonization.

6. The Franco Prussian war of 1871.
 The war between German and France, where France was defeated very badly and lost her resourceful regions for industrial advancement Alsace and Lorain to German. France decided to compensate such losses by acquiring colonies in Africa to act as source of industrial raw materials for her industries. This forced other European countries to follow, thus scramble and partition.

The process of he scramble and partition of Africa had three major stages namely; 1830-18 80s this was scramble between France and Britain, then 1 880s which witnessed the joining of late corners in the process particularly Germany and Italy following their unifications, the last stage was the calling of the Berlin conference to partition and colonization of African.

STAGE ONE 1830s-1880s -
During this stage the major participants in the scramble were Britain and France. Britain had colonized South Africa since 1795 as a colony for settlement and Sierra Leone as a Colony to the freed slaves since1810. France had monopolized Senegal, Gabon and Ivory Coast the major source of her industri1rwmatrial in-this, stage it were two countries affair
These two powers were scrambling to monopolize the control of Suez Canal which was very strategic as far as marine transport was concerned.


Originated with British Imperialist with the ambition to control Egypt because of the Suez Canal and the river Nile. The Suez Càna1 was built by French engineers and it was opened in 1869 with that Britain became increasingly involved in Egyptian affairs. Any European power tempering with the Nile was regarded as a big enemy of Britain French expansionism towards the Nile.

The power involved were France, Belgium, Portugal and Britain; French claims over Congo Basin the claims were supported by the treaties signed between the local rulers and the French agents called DE BRAZZA Belgium had claims over the Congo Basin the claims were support by the treaties signed between France, Stanley and the local rulers. Portugal had claims over the Congo basin That Congo was very close to the Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique Britain has vested imperialist interest in the Congo Basin rich agricultural land and -mineral potentialities and also existence of internal rivers and lakes for easy navigation. Such diversity interest led to intensive scramble among the imperialist nations which led to the calling of Berlin conference as to divert military confrontation.

The power involved was Britain, France and German. The source of the conflict originated in the British imperialist ambitions to control the Niger delta any power tempering with the region was regarded as a big enemy of Britain. Expansionism from Cameroon to the region alarmed the British disputes occurred among the three powers.

The power involved was Britain and Germany British wanted to control the source of river Nile. The controversy originates in Britain imperialist interest to control the river Nile from its source to its mouth/end. The establishment of Germany influence in East Africa claimed the British fearing of intervening with, the Nile disputes occurred between the two powers Reason for scramble; fertile soil and good climate, e.g. the Lake Region and Kilimanjaro. The 1886 and 18890 Anglo German agreement was the product of this

 These included countries from central and southern African nations like: Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. Powers involved were Portuguese and British thy compromised by forming a joint company the British South African Company under-Cecil Rhodes. Why scrambled Presence of fertile soils e.g. the Shire highlands of Malawi and the Matebele and Shona region of Zimbabwe and mineral potentialities.

Powers involved were France, German, Portugal, Belgium Italy and Britain Source of conflict was the controversy in the British ambition to establish a continental corridor from Cape Town to Cairo. Each area passed by the railway has to be put under British control .The white elephant project claimed the root competition, which other European countries were not prepared to except this led to the European nation into a situation of going to war thus led to another stage to the-colonization of Africa i.e. the calling of the Berlin conference of 1 884/5.

Intensification of European scrambles in the so called strategic region, broad disputes and rivalries among the European contending powers.

The disputes and rivalries created the war situation; the war was inevitable among the European powers

It was also because of such rivalries that led to the occurrence of the first world war of 1914.

It necessitated the calling Berlin conference led by Germany chancellor Bismarck

Diplomatic initiatives were taken by chancellor Otto von Bismarck of Germany by convening Berlin conference. The conference resolved to partition Africa into colonial possession in order to avoid war among European powers which had become inevitable.

The conference laid for the principle of dividing and occupying Africa which culminated into the establishment of the evil of colonialism in Africa.

STAGE TWO 1880-1890
This was characterized with the intervention of latecomers in the process in the process of scramble and partition i.e. Italy and German after their unification they became powerful and industrialized thus search for industria1 raw materials and markets

The Berlin conference was the second stage in the colonization of Africa. This stage begun from 1880s to 1890s. It was characterized with the intervention of late corners, in the process of scramble and partition i.e. Italy and German after their unification they became powerful and industrialized thus search for industrial raw materials and markets.

The conference was convened by Otto Van Bismarck in 1884/1885 it was attended by 27 countries including all the imperialist power .like German Britain, France, Italy, Denmark, U.S.A etc. The major aim of the conference was to divert the world from war.

To avoid military confrontation among the imperialist powers that was eminent. Among the imperialist powers especially after the joining of Germany as a late corner in the process after taking over colonies in Togo, Cameroon, South west Africa (Namibia) and what came to be known as Germany East Africa the present clay Tanzania Burundi and Rwanda. This increased the intensity of rivalries among the imperialist Nations in the scramble and partition of Africa. Thus the conferences aimed to easy the rivalries and solve the problem peacefully.

To abolish slave trade and slavery in Africa and establish the so called ‘legitimate trade’. Slave trade had been abolished long time in 1830s. But still some European nations were still reluctant -a implement the resolution. This conference also aimed at emphasizing the abolition of slave trade in Africa. and in place monopoly European companies were to be introduced to carry on the so called ‘legitimate trade’ where European goods would be traded freely.

To clear up -the existing boundaries. This was the source of disputes among the imperialist powers. Especially between Britain and France who possessed indefinable areas of interest in West central and east Africa. And to define areas of effective occupation so that no any other country should claim the already occupied area.

Bismarck also aimed on taming French hostilities, after her defeat in the Franco- Prussian war of 1871 where she lost her resourceful regions of Alsace and Lorraine to German.

It aimed to enable German and Italy to join the process of scramble, following their unifications, as the late corners after under going industrial revolution.

It was also called as to maintain European balance of power among the European nations through equalize political and economic powers.

i.    German unification; made German to be the most powerful nation in Europe after defeating France, Denmark and Austria the European balance of power was in her favor. That’s why she was able to command other European nations.

ii.    The industrialization of German; which made German to be in need of raw materials badly of, cheap labor and area for investment, thus she wanted colonies from Africa hence called the Berlin conference

iii.    The role of Otto Van Bismarck, he was a very ambitious leader who wanted recognition by other European leaders thus the calling of the Berlin conference

iv.    The late coming of German in the process of scrambling and partition of Africa.   To enable her to acquire some colonies.

v.     The hostility between France and German. Made Germany to call for this conference as to check on France expansionism in Africa, that may make her very powerful economically and militarily and able to revenge Germany in future

vi.    The rise of monopoly capitalism in German which made German to extend her influence beyond her boundaries.

1.    The Congo basin was declared Free State under king Leopard of Belgium and the Niger River was free for navigation to all imperialist nations. It recognized Leopard’s so-called international association as the legitimate authority in Congo basin. In return the Belgium king agreed to allow European traders and missionaries free access to the area.

2.    Strong and sophisticated military weapons were prohibited to be brought in Africa. They allowed light weapons to be used in Africa. This aimed to maintain security in
the colonies and to avoid the accessibility of such strong weapons to the colonized      subjects. (Africans).

3.    Effective occupation should be implemented by the imperialist Nations as a sign for claim of any colony by the imperialist nation. Administrators must be sent in the colonies. The conference agreed claim of any area would only be recognized by other European nation if it was ‘effectively occupied’ by that particular European power. This was a deliberate tactic of Bismarck to under mind British claim in the vague ‘spheres of influence.

4.    In case of resistance by Africans to the colonial Occupation, no any European country should give help to the Africans to fight fellow European. That was another resolution that was reached upon by the Berlin conference so as to make Africans defeated and colonized by the imperialists. This appeared as an alliance among the imperialist powers.

5.    All colonial powers, should take the initiative to abolish slave trade and slavery in their colonies and to allow free excess to the colonial agents in: the interior as to campaign against slave trade and spread civilization in the interior.

6.    In case of any disputes among the imperialist powers they should solve it peacefully without the use of force. As to maintain solidarity and Unity in the foreign land of Africa. Using force may weaken one European power, which can also make her to be defeated by the Africans.

7.    If a nation occupies a coastal area it had to extend it legally, to the interior and to colony of another colonial master.

8.    Principle of notification It was agreed that a power requiring any part of Africa was supposed to inform another power in order to escape misunderstanding among the powers i.e. the principle of notification among the imperialist powers.

9.    The conference also agreed that areas in Africa already proclaimed protectorate by European nations before conference should remain in their hands , such areas included the Congo and those territories which Germany had annexed like Togo South West Africa (Namibia)

Berlin conference partitioned/sliced Africa among the imperialists into colonial possessions and fixed the boundaries in their interests. Britain got 27 colonies, France 12 colonies, German 9 colonies, Belgium 2 colonies etc.

The Berlin conference gave the international recognition to a process that has been going on quite some time. Although the conference initially aimed at solving the conflicting interest in the Congo and Niger Delta, it turned out to be conference for parceling out the whole of Africa.

It led to the loss of African sovereignty/independence to the imperialist European nations who established colonial rule. After passing the act of effective occupation Many imperialist nations begun to send colonial agents, administrators to take over the C1Qnia1 process thus the colonization of Africa.

The Berlin act made necessary for imperialists to send representative to begin grabbing land of the Africans. Initially they left the administration of their spheres to the commercial East African company, and the imperial British East African company all these commercial companies aimed at maximizing profit through intensive exploitation.

It led to the abolition of slave trade and the introduction of legitimate trade which benefited the imperialists. Colonial agents like missionaries and traders were sent to carry out vigorous campaign against slavery and slave trade and in place ‘legitimate trade should be introduced, where cheap European goods should be traded in exchange with African raw materials like cotton coffee sisal palm oil ground nuts etc.

It led to the suffering of African people under colonial administration especially when they resisted the colonial rule many were crushed to death. For stance between 1880s - 1890s when France begun aggressive policy of wide spread colonization in West Africa. They pushed towards upper Niger. The Tukolor Empire under the leadership of al hajj Umar and the new expanding Mandika under the leadership of Samori begun military campaign to oppose the French domination.

The Berlin conference did not satisfy the ambitions of all imperialists’ nations  which led to the outbreak of First World War and Second World War Germany still searched for more colonies as to equalize with Britain and France such desires promoted conflicts.

The Berlin conference divided African ethnic origin into separated colonial boundaries e.g. the Makonde in Mozambique and in Tanganyika, the Maasai in Kenya and Tanganyika, the Luo in Kenya, Sudan and Uganda.

It made Africa to become a property of Europeans but not for Africans any more. They made the economies of Africa to respond to their economical problems. This created many Africa economies to become dependant to the metro pole economies, we produced what they needed and we consumed what they wanted.

The conference managed to divert the war which was eminent among the imperialists. While scrambling of the spheres of interests the imperialist powers were about to go to war, but the Berlin conference managed to divert the would be war.

1.    Early settlement of European from different countries, in some parties of Africa which were occupied by European before the Berlin conference like missionaries, traders, explorers and traveler, for example Cecil Rhodes in southern Africa John Moffat who stayed in Matebele land for about thirty years the Portuguese who stayed in Angola and Mozambique for long, the Berlin conference considered this case by giving the territories o individual European nations in favour.

2.    The early exploration and discoveries. Former exploration of some African region was also another factor for a certain nation to receive a certain territory, for example in case of Dr living stone’s exploration in central Africa he drew the map of Chobe river in nowadays Zimbabwe fell under the British government which had sent Dr living stone, in the similar case curl peters won Tanganyika for Germany.

3.    Strategic factors, also this factor pre determined the division of Africa region among the European nations for instance the Egyptian British question explain the reason for the timing and dividing African continent among the European powers. factors considered to be strategic included existence of rivers for easy navigation in the interior existence of minerals population and fertility of the soils.

4.    The treaties signed between African and European and between European county and European country were also another consideration in determining the division of the African territories among the imperialists, e.g. H. Johnson made treaties with Mangi Rindi of Kilimanjaro in July 1884 and Karl peters organized more treaties in Usabara Uzigua, Ukami and Kilosa.

5.    Influence and development in the region, this was also considered a factor to determine the division of African continent among the imperialist powers, in areas which any European power had already put some investments or had influence over it before the Berlin conference was also distributed to her, e.g. Zanzibar with the British who had already shown interest over the islands.

The partition of East Africa was the outcome of the development of European monopoly capitalism, which manifested itself on the African continent in the form of colonialism. Various factors stimulated the partition of Africa and escalated the division of East Africa. In our exploration here, our main attention will focus only on those things that accelerated the scramble for and partition of East Africa, including the following:
The development of commercial rivalries between Germany’s company and the British consul in Zanzibar accelerated the partition process. The British consul sought the partition of East Africa in order to monopolize trade and communication on the Tanzania mainland.

The Anglican missionaries in Uganda appealed to their government to assist them during their conflicts with Kabaka Mutesa I. The Catholics requested protection from the French; hence, they desired Uganda to be in the hands of Germans and they supported Karl Peters’ treaty with Kabaka Mutesa.

Early attempts made by King Leopold II to establish the Belgian Empire from the lower Congo to the coast of East Africa antagonized the British and Germans, who were already in the area.

Karl Peter, who arrived in East Africa in April 1884 to sign treaties with mainland Tanzania and Uganda’s Kabaka Mutesa I, embittered the British. German authority officially confirmed Bismarck annexed these treaties and the areas visited by him without consulting the sultan of Zanzibar.

After the establishment of the British in Egypt, they sought to occupy Uganda and Kenya. The latter was to serve the landlocked country of Uganda and to ensure that Uganda would not fall in the hands of the rival powers, such as Germany and France, who could then control the Nile waters and turn Egypt into a desert.

The Germans also scrambled for colonies in East Africa due to the need for raw materials to support German industrialization. Manufacturers put pressure on the government to acquire colonies. Moreover, Germany was also interested in protecting French Catholic missionaries, who called upon them for protection in Uganda.

The entire process of partition began with the Berlin Conference of 1884— 1885 and was completed with the partition of East Africa between Germany and Britain, which took place between 1880—1890. It was completed in two stages of agreements between them. There had been antagonism between Germany, Britain, and the Sultan of Zanzibar over the area of East Africa. These clashes led to the first agreement.
Reasons for the Anglo-German Agreement of 1886
On 5th February 1885, Karl Peters presented his treaties to Bismarck and to President Kaiser William I. The latter granted him a charter (imperial) that stated that the area visited by him was to come under German colonization. Their society was named the German East African Company (G.E.A.C.).

Due to Germany’s recognition of Karl Peter’s treaties, the British and the Sultan’s interests were threatened. The Sultan was saddened and appealed to Sir John Kirk, the British consul who was residing in South Africa, for assistance. To solve the matter peacefully, the Anglo- German agreement was obligatory.

British and German companies interfered with each other’s spheres of influence. In order to dissolve the rivalry between the British East African Company (I.B.E.A.C.) and the German East African Company (G.E.A.C.), they called the conference in 1886.

Terms of the Anglo-German Agreement of 1886
The Anglo-German Agreement of 1886 was between the German and the British, who together with the Sultan reached the following agreements:
The Germans and the British recognized the Sultan’s sphere of influence, which included Zanzibar, Pemba, Lamu, Mogadishu, Merca, Brava, and 10 miles of the coastal strip.

 The territory between the Ruvuma and Tana rivers was divided into German and British spheres of influences near Lake Victoria, which is now the boundary between Tanzania and Kenya.

The Britain agreed to support Germany’s claims to establish a customhouse at Dar es Salaam, thus becoming a virtually German possession.

Britain agreed to recognize the German possession of Witu and its territory to the sea at Manda Bay.

Reasons for the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890 (Heligoland Treaty)
Bismarck wanted to secure Germany’s position in Europe. But his great fear was France and Britain’s opposition. Hence, to avert this danger, he was prepared to make concessions in East Africa
The British protectorate of Zanzibar was to be recognized. Hence, the recognition of the British prote’ge’ by the Germans would eliminate the British grudge.

The Island of Heligoland in the North Sea was to be given to the Germans. The Germans believed that this would be a valuable naval base.

 In January 1890, Kabaka Mwanga signed the treaty of protectorate with Karl Peters that placed Buganda in the hands of the Germans. By then, however, Britain had already colonized Egypt in order to guard the Suez Canal. Britain did not want the source of the Nile to be under any big power, so she worked to colonize Uganda.

The British wanted to persuade the Sultan to cede to the Germans the ten miles of coastal strip of the mainland. The Sultan agreed to this for the equivalent of two hundred thousand dollars. Germany agreed to abandon all claims to the Witu region (north of the British sphere), which would mean the end of the Witu German Protectorate, granted in the agreement of 1886,

Terms of the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890
The Germans and British dominated the Anglo-German Agreement of 1890, which the Sultan played only a minor role. The following points made up the terms of the agreement:
Tanganyika and an island in the North Sea became Germany’s sphere of influence. This agreement is sometimes referred to as the “Heligoland Treaty,” for the Germans gave up their claims to Witu.

Zanzibar, Pemba, Kenya, and Uganda became British spheres of influence. This agreement completed the partition of East Africa on paper. What remained for the respective colonial powers was to establish their colonial administrations. Both powers left this to their chartered companies.

Effects of the Partition of East Africa
The Anglo-German Agreement of 1890 completed the partition of East Africa and came out with the following effects:
Dar es Salaam and Mombasa became important as main ports linked by railways.

From 1890 to 1894 respectively, Zanzibar and Uganda were under British rule.

Germany took Tanganyika with its base in Dar es Salaam. Germany bought the coastal strip from the Sultan.

These treaties culminated in the prelude to colonialism.

The Fashoda Incident

The Fashoda Incident (1898) was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between the United Kingdom and France in Eastern Africa. It brought the United Kingdom and France to the verge of war, but ended in a diplomatic victory for the UK. It is held to have given rise to the 'Fashoda syndrome' in French foreign policy (assertion of French influence in areas which may be becoming susceptible to British influence).

During the late 19th century, Africa was rapidly being occupied by European colonial powers. This period in African history is usually called the Scramble for Africa. The two principal powers involved in this scramble were the United Kingdom and France although Italy, Portugal, Spain, Germany, and Belgium participated.

The French thrust into the African interior was mainly from the continent's Atlantic coast (modern day Senegal) eastward, through the Sahel along the southern border of the Sahara, a territory covering modern day Senegal, Mali, Niger, and Chad. Their ultimate goal was to have an uninterrupted link between the Niger River and the Nile, hence controlling all trade to and from the Sahel region, by virtue of their existing control over the caravan routes through the Sahara.

The British, on the other hand, wanted to link their possessions in Southern Africa (modern South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia), with their territories in East Africa (modern Kenya), and these two areas with the Nile basin. Sudan (which in those days included modern day Uganda) was the key to the fulfillment of these ambitions, especially since Egypt was already under British control. This 'red line' (i.e. a proposed railway) through Africa is made most famous by Englishman and South African political force Cecil Rhodes, who wanted Africa 'painted [British] Red'.

When one draws a line from Cape Town to Cairo (Rhodes' dream) and another line from Dakar to French Somaliland (now-Djibouti) by the Red Sea in the Horn (the French ambition), these two lines intersect in eastern Sudan near the town of Fashoda (present-day Kodok), explaining its strategic importance. The French east-west axis and the British north-south axis could not co-exist; the nation that could occupy and hold the crossing of the two axes would be the only one able to proceed with its plan.

Fashoda was also bound up in the Egyptian Question — a long running dispute between the United Kingdom and France over the legality of the British occupation of Egypt. Since 1882 many French politicians, particularly those of the parti colonial, had come to regret France’s decision not to join with Britain in occupying the country. They hoped to force Britain to leave, and thought that a colonial outpost on the Upper Nile could serve as a base for French gunboats. These in turn were expected to make the British abandon Egypt. Another proposed scheme involved a massive dam, cutting off the Nile’s water supply and forcing the British out. These ideas were highly impractical, but they succeeded in frightening many British officials, who sought to protect Egypt by securing the Nile.




As to fulfill the principle of effective occupation of the Ber1in conference various European countries began to send various companies to administer their respective colonies after granting them with the royal charter.

In many parts of Africa European government used concessionary companies to colonize their new found empire. By this system private European companies were granted vast stretches of African territories to exploit and colonize at their own expense in the name of European country concerned. E.g. in Nigeria British used the Royal Niger Company in Rhodesia The British South African Company in East Africa the Imperial British East African Company.

To administer colonies on behalf of the colonial government like providing and setting up
rudimentary administrators

To suppress/stop African resistance to the colonial government and establish colonial rule.

To stamp out slave trade and slavery in the colonies and to introduce legitimate trade

To carry out the constructions of infrastructures like rail, roads, ports, harbors etc

To introduce the capitalist economy in the colonies through encouraging cash crops and
legitimate trade which acted as the back bone of the colonial economy

To fulfill the objectives of their home government in the colonies whereby they ensure
constant supply of raw materials, market of their goods and areas for investment


They faced financial problems e.g IBEACO was declared bankrupt only after the construction of six kilometers of Uganda rail

Administrative problems since most of them were surplus population created by industrial revolution in Europe they lacked skills and technological know how to carry out technical work.

Communication barriers to penetrate into the interior were a problem for the companies to establish colonial rule in the interior.

Resistance of indigenous people to the companies like sultan of Zanzibar, Abushiri and Bwana Heri-and the people    

False hope of the existence of minerals which turned to be not.

Most of the companies were motivated by short term private profit there were little long term investment in administration, roads or railway.

Many companies concentrated on violent exploitation of the people and their natural resources that attracted opposition from the Africans thus their failures

Because of such problems many concessionary companies by the early 1920s had given away to direct European imperialism in most of the countries apart from Mozambique.

Colonial rule refers to the colonial political control or occupation and consolidation of the African colonies by the imperialist countries in the last quarter of 19th century. It appeared not easy for the colonialist to apply effective occupation of African states since the African were not aware of the whole process; and motives of the imperialists, thus various methods were to be applied by the colonialist to ensure the establishment colonial rule

There were four major techniques that were applied in establishment of colonial rule which
Military techniques.
Ideological techniques.
Administrative techniques.
And Diplomacy

These were implemented by colonial military forces which later formed colonial state that comprised the police prison, army and judiciary which ensured consolidation and full establishment of colonial domination in the colony. Military technique included the following method.

Direct military conquest through application of military force. It was done in the areas of strong resistance it was application of force using the state apparatus like police army and prison e.g. Bunyoro. Asante, the Hehe and Sokoto, force was applied after they proved hard to the colonial rule, after the failure of other methods.

Deportation of some of the tribal leaders who were exiled away to stop resistance e.g. Jaja of Opobo was deported to West Indies in 1891.Mwanga of Buganda and Kabarega of Bunyoro were exiled Seychelles island when they resisted colonial rule

Gun- but diplomacy it was; used to intimidate, by using superior guns e.g. Sultan of Zanzibar surrendered a treaty to Karl Peters: of German the same approach was used by captain Lugard in Nigeria

Recruiting mercenaries; the Germany used Manyerna from Zaire, Britain used Nubian from Sudan, because they were easy to manipulate since they did not have any blood relation with the people they suppressed.

This is whereby the colonialists applied psychological and ideological approach to establish colonial rule by using the following methods

Colonial Education, the colonial education was very fundamental in creating divisions among the Africans which made them an easy prey for colonization. Africans were divided in the way that few were given education so as to assist the colonialist in their administration. The elites were brain washed with western culture and believed them to be superior.

Religion this was a fundamental tool to soften African hearts to surrender their confidence and support to the missionary activities. African religion was referred to as the paganism, Christianity and Islam were said to be civilized religions to .civilized people. Thus making African subversive to the foreign religion while casting their indigenous religions.

Application of Racism. This was an ideology that internalized the belief that certain race was superior to the other races .The African black color was insulted to be the color of the devil which was always painted in black color and angels in white color as the Europeans are, this brought inferior complex among the Africans themselves.

Language factor. The colonialist used their languages as an official languages in the colonies that forced Africans learn such languages as to corporate with them as in schools local languages were to be abandoned as vernaculars and punished when caught speaking.

This is where by the colonialists applied dialogue and peaceful means in imposing colonial rule
through the following methods.

Signing of bogus treaties and agreement; Europeans signed treaties with the local African chiefs e.g. Karl Peters signed a treaty with Chief Mangungo of Msovero in Morogoro in1884, Johnson Hurry signed a treaty in 1900 with Daud Chwa of Buganda such treaties made African to be encroached by the colonialists.

Application of Alliance and collaboration. In this case the colonizers allied with weaker societies e.g. Benna and the Sangu were allied with the German to weaken the Hehe, Buganda allied with British to fight Bunvoro.

Divide and rule Approach. Here the Africans were divided by colonizers on tribal lines, economic lines and religious e.g. in the Ganda tribe was given education and white collar
jobs while the northerners were to provide cheap labor .The Catholics were segregated in the British colonies and all leadership posts were given to the protestants such acts kept African disunited and easy to be ruled.

Division of colonies into manageable small districts under district commissioners those were very strict to colonial orders.

These were applied differently with different colonial masters and they were of five kinds;

Indirect Rule. This was applied in the British colonies with varying degree of success after being a success in India which had various religions and tribes. It involved the use of African tradition institutions in managing the affairs of colonized people, like in Uganda, Sierra Leone. Nigeria and Ghana.

Direct Rule. It involved the employment of Europe an in the management of the colonies it was largely used by Germany and Portugal, Germany use Akidas and Portuguese used Degrattos. However this system was not successful to a big extend

Assimilation. It was applied by France in her colonies of Algeria and Senegal and with the aim of assimilating the Africans into French men although with black skin so as to help the colonialist in their work of administration and to reduce African resistance this policy was also used by the Portuguese in Mozambique and Angola

Association or partnership. It was applied by France after assimilation policy proved a
failure, it was assort of partnership where Africans associated with the French ill the colonial administration and consolidation e.g. the Africans were supposed to supply military services Labor, pay taxes, while the French to provide technical knowledge

Adaptation, this was type of colonial administration technique that the colonial administration was determined by the nature of the African society the way they appeared and circumstances surrounded them it also depended much to the attitude of the colonial power and resources available at their disposal.

Questions for Review

1. Discuss how the colonial rule were established and consolidated by the colonialists in Africa
    during the early stages of colonialism.

2.  Discuss how the colonial rule were established and consolidated by the colonialists in Africa
     during the early stages of colonialism. THE BRITISH MODEL OF INDIRECT RULE
This was a system whereby the colonies ware administered through the existing African local political institutions by using local chiefs and kings Britain applied this policy after applying it in India where it succeeded. France applied this policy in special cases where assimilation was impossible like in Burkina Faso and Cameroon, Germany applied indirect system in Rwanda, Burundi and Karagwe. It was implemented and conducted through various methods that included the following;

Preserving or retention. The existed political institutions were used by the colonialists to rule on the behalf of the colonialists e.g. Buganda kingdom and Kabaka were used to establish the colonial domination in Uganda

Creation of new institution They created new institution where they were not existing e.g.
northern Nigeria where they created new institution of kingship because of the diversity of
people in the region.

Through granting some autonomy [independence] to the local rulers to determine some
decision for there societies which motivated many. of them and made them to feel as not being colonized.


MINISTER OF COLONIES (Overall colonies in Africa-Britain)
GOVERNOR (In charge a given colonies)
PROVINCIAL COMMISSIONER (In charge the provinces)



Britain applied this policy not out of blue sky but after experimenting a similar policy in India where it yielded fruits given the nature of the Indian society with vast land and diverse population of various religions like Hinduism Islam, Buddhism, Bahaism

In Africa the system was applied in various colonies it was introduced by Lord Fredrick Lugard in Northern Nigeria between 1900 and 1906.How ever Britain applied this system because of the numerous advantages it had which included the following

Britain applied this policy not out of blue sky but after experimenting a similar policy in
India where it yielded fruits given the nature of the Indian society with vast land and diverse
population of various religions like Hinduism Islam, Buddhism, Bahaism

Shortage of man power Indirect rule only required only few administrators to be employed
the British government lacked enough key personnel to govern their vast colonial possession
in Africa, thus the use of Africans to avoid European man power who would be even
economically expensive.

To avoid African resistance. The African chiefs acted as shock absorbers between African
reactions to the colonialist the system despised the real enemy of the Africans; Africans were
not ready to resist their 'own chiefs and kings thus the advantage of indirect rule.

Inadequate funds This system minimized the expenditure because the African local chiefs
were not paid salaries they depended on praises and gifts and the British government had no
enough funds to pay salaries to all her workers given the vast colonial empire that Britain

Existence of Tropical diseases in the interior. Many White administrators feared tropical
diseases such as malaria, small pox and jiggers in the interior of Africa, so they used local
Africans who were used to .he environment with body immunity of tropical diseases.

Communication barriers in the interior Between local people and whites, they also solved
the problem of transportation due thick forests, Valleys Mountains that made communication
in the interior impossible. But the local chiefs could travel themselves to meet the district

High production/ exploitation this system facilitated colonial production since the local
chiefs were the supervisors at the grass root of production; Constant supply of labor was
guaranteed and cash crops production was high thus a good policy.

Profit earning motive It also maximized profit for the colonialists since very small
administrative man power who ware used that were paid the local chiefs had no salaries hence the British made super profit

Lack of efficient infrastructures in the new colonies. It solved the problems of lack
of efficient infrastructure like accommodation medical facilities, clean water etc to the
administrators in the interior

Mass illiteracy of Africans Indirect rule was seen by the British colonialist as the best technique to govern the illiterates in their colonies, it was difficulty for the masses of African to listen to the colonialist through mass media like Radio news papers. The uses of African local chiefs were the only possible solution to disseminate the information


The acted as a symbolic representation of their people to the colonial masters

They participated in making decisions signing treaties on behalf of their masses

They acted as the bridge between the colonialists and the local people they took orders from the colonialist and took back the feedback from the Africans

They collected taxes and revenues [or the colonial masters from the local people taxes like poll tax, hut tax etc

They dealt with judicial functions; they acted as judges, and magistrates for the wrong doers in their societies

They acted as supervisors in colonial production; they ensured constant supply of raw materials and cheap labour for the- colonial economy    

They provided crucial information to the colonialists concerning the nature and the attitudes of Africans.

They preserved local values culture and norms of the African societies:

To a greater extent indirect rule was very successful in the British colonies in the following

It was successful to divide and rule the Africans through their local rulers who were turned into puppets of Europeans.

It also facilitated in colonial production which ensure constant supply or raw materials supervised and monitored by local chiefs who were on the grassroots.

It minimized the cost since many African chiefs 'were not paid salaries or wages but they depended on praises, gifts and grants.

Accumulation of human power as it was available for administrative purposes e.g. in a single colony of Britain only top administrators were needed governors, provincial commissioner and district commissioner others were local chiefs.

It also achieved in reducing friction between Africa and Europeans.

The British model of indirect rule was indirect theoretically, but practically it was direct rule. How?

The local rulers lacked Autonomy/independence and they were subjected to direct intervention of the colonizers in making decision African countries were given autonomy but the final decision came from Europeans

All the orders were formulated by the colonizers, African chiefs were only to implement
the orders and not to create or to discuss them thus a direct rule not indirect.

Europeans had powers to hire and fire any local leader who disobeyed their orders

Colonizers lacked legal authority to create new political structure that did not exist before but they did.

The whole process of indirect rule was to benefit Europeans the African chiefs were used as tools to enable the European to achieve their goals,


Indirect rule brought disunity among the Africans and it promoted regionalism e.g. in
Uganda, Buganda wanted an independent state from the entire Uganda

It led to the of creation of social stratification among the masses of i.e. some tribe become ruling class while others supplier of cheap labor differences among people and regions

It led to intensive exploitation of African resources through using the local chiefs at the grass root.

The existence of social services that were put in place only to benefit the colonizers but not Africans like construction of schools to train collaborators and de-culturize Africans

It promoted imbalance regional development in many colonies of Africa, some regions were totally ignored especially such regions that supplied cheap labor for stance in Northern Uganda.

It created enmity between and their local and tradition leaders since they participated
in harassing the local people.

Indirect rule led to the loss of African sovereignty since many African local leaders
succumbed to European colonial rule and begun to take orders from their new masters.

Indirect rule was a method which was used to establish the evil of colonialism in the African continent thus the success of the policy in the colony led to establishment of colonialism

Assimilation means to resemble or to look like. It was applied by France in her colonies such as Senegal, Ivory Coast, and Equatorial Guinea etc.

Assimilation can be defined as a system of administration whereby Africans were turned into black French men by being assimilated to French culture,
Unlike the British or Belgium the French believed in a colonial policy of cultural assimilation some time mockingly described as turning African into "Black French men," This assimilation was limited to a small elite class which felt it self smothered in alien clothes and idea revolted intellectually, they insisted on the need to strip away their French cultural wrapping in order to discover their own true' color 'Of black skins, this led to the development of the philosophy of blackness i.e. "Negritude" which stressed the essential unity of black people and self determination of Africans

The French revolution of 1789 advocated for liberty, equality, fraternity which, influenced the
application of the assimilation policy, in her colonies

The French culture and civilization was seen by the French to be superior to that of Africans
so they wanted to civilize Africa by implanting their culture to Africans

They had a duty to spread western education and the religion that they believed it was more
civilized and advanced.

The view of French people towards colonies which were regarded as over sea provinces not
colonies also influenced the French people to establish assimilation policy.

MINISTER. (He was in Paris in France answerable to the parliament)

GENERAL GOVERNER (he was is Dakar west Brazaville)

LIEUTENANT GOVERNER (he stayed in colonies)



VILLAGE CHIEFS (they were the localAfricans)


Should be Fluent in French language both spoken and written

Africans should practice Monogamy-a person should marry only one wife

Military training must be compulsory to those who would like to be assimilated

Anyone to be assimilated should be of the Age of 15 years and not above 50yrs

At least should be with ten years of experience in government services

Any person should be ready to succumb to western culture in practice.



The assimilation policy of France which started in 1870 ended 1920 with little success because of the problems that it confronted in its operation the policy was abandoned and association policy was recommended, some of the reasons as to why the policy failed included the following.

Inadequate resources to implement the policy; The policy needed the creation of many teachers to work in various primary and secondary schools that would be teaching the French
language, and provide the colonial subjects with the basic education, the colonial master was
not able to implement that thus the failure of the policy.    

To preserve colonial interests; Which were endangered by the policy since many Africans
qualified for French citizenship, were entitled to all rights like other French citizens such rights would not enable the colonizers to exploit the colonial subjects to the maximum, Thus the abandoning of the policy as to preserve the colonial interests.    

Poor infrastructures; In the colonies it impeded effective implementation of the policy since
it was difficult to penetrate in the interior to reach the targeted colonial subjects because of thick forests, valleys, and mountains which made communication more than impossible in the

African resistance; This also was a set back for the policy to succeed the French spent a lot of
their effort suppressing the resistance e.g. Samori Toure of the Mandika empire.

Language barriers; Many Africans got difficulties in learning the French language and many
French administrators could not speak African local language, this created gap between the
colonizers and the colonized people.

Cultural barriers; the majority of Senegalese were practicing Islam which allows polygamy,
they failed to adopt western culture.

Criticisms by some French elites/philosophers; they criticized the system of which they say
that it was a burden to French tax payers carrying the burden of the black man

Hard conditional ties to qualify; Many African could not comply with the conditions visa-vi
African culture like polygamy and other African rituals

Was substitute to the old policy of assimilation after its failure in the second half of 20th century the policy of Association is defined as a-participatory administration under which the colonial subjects were involved in the administrative function at the lower levels

The colonial subjects were involved in the colonial administrative functions In the following

Political dimension, French were supposed to respect political institutions of Africans and
the system should involve Africa rulers in the lower administration. Africans were supposed
to be recruited in the colonial army and defend the colonial interest

Economic dimension, African was supposed to pay taxes for development like construction
schools hospitals etc. They were also supposed to supply cheap labor which was essentially
voluntary labor to the manual works such as construction of roads, railways, ports, etc

Social dimension, Africans were allowed to practice their culture freely, Europeans were
supposed to respect African culture.


De-Africanisation;  The assimilated Africans abandoned African cultural values and succumbed to
French culture like religion, language, dressing, etc which created the decline of African traditional

Facilitation of colonial production; It facilitated colonial production in the acquired French colonies under the supervision of local people. Africans were intensively exploited in the so called association policy.

Development of class consciousness; which resulted into ant colonial struggles influenced by
extreme exploitation and oppression of the masses

Citizenship of Africans; It also made some Africans to be associated to the France society whereby
they were given citizenship rights to vote and to be voted in French parliament.


Comparisons or Similarities.

Both Indirect Rule and Assimilation were the policies adopted by the Imperialists powers to rule their colonies.

Both system employed European personnel in higher posts of administration, while Africans were employed at more local levels.

Both policies concentrated on the exploitation of their colonies with the intention of obtaining raw materials, markets and areas for investments.

Both the British and French administrative policies were adopted to simplify the cost of administration and to avoid resistances from the local people.

Both systems were built on the belief that the Whiteman’s race religion was superior to those of the Africans.

In both system of administration, policy making was done in European parliaments and passed through a secretary for colonies.

Both systems undermined the position of traditional chiefs who came to rely on more and more for their support on French and British support.

Both systems established new laws based their home government judicial systems e.g. the French Native Justice and the British Judicial systems.

Both Indirect Rule and Assimilation policies failed to achieve what they set out to do e.g. Indirect rule failed to preserve traditional institutions while Assimilation was abandoned in favour of association.

Contrasts or Differences.

The French combined all their colonies into single block or federation under one administration while the British rules their colonies separately.

The French introduced the policy of assimilation with the aim of changing Africans into Black French citizens while the British regarded the Africans local practices.

The British applied Indirect Rule in the colonies while the French mainly applied the policy of Assimilation.

Laws applied in French colonies were made in France while in British colonies laws were enacted by the respective legislative councils (Legco).

In French colonies, Assimilated Africans became French citizens with full rights while those in the British colonies remained colonial subjects.

The local government of the two systems also reveals some differences e.g. British tries to respect the traditional chiefs, laws and customs while French lacked respect for traditional authorities.

A very notable difference is the attitude the two colonial systems mid towards their colonies e.g. British regarded their colonies as separate entities different from mother country while French regarded their colonies as the overseas provinces.

All African chiefs under British control enjoyed more power and authority than those of French e.g. the British permitted some control of finance to the local chiefs while the French take away all the revenue.

Both systems differed in revenue management- in French West Africa all revenue was collected and taken to the central pool in the federal pool at Dakar while in British West Africa, each colony managed its own financial resource.

Chiefs in French colonies could be appointed and transferred from place to place while in the British colonies chiefs were those accepted by Africans and could not be transferred.


The African reaction against colonial rule begun on the onset of the penetration of the colonialists.
African resistance refers to the early struggle that were started by Africans against the imposition of
colonial rule during their attempts to occupy the African land.  African resistance has been classified into two
i.    Primary Resistance
ii.    Secondary Resistance

These were the initial resistance against colonialists during the period of immediate penetration in
Africa. Were African begun losing their sovereignty to the invaders and trade control?

In Kenya the British who took over the administration of the territory from the IBEACo in 1895
faced earlier resistance from the Coastal Swahili and their neighbors known as the Mazrui uprising
following this crush, the British abandoned their attempts to rule the coast through the local aristocracy instead they promoted the Zanzibar and the Oman Arabs to position of local powers 'to the Kenyan coastal towns. The Nandi also had offered a brief challenge to company trading caravan in 1894, but these had been defeated.

In Uganda British government formally took over the administration in 1894 from the company rule. Kabalega of Bunyoro begun to resist the colonial penetration with the guerilla war fare against the British troops for four years. The British faced mutiny in their army until they imported other forces from India before they were finally able to overcome the resistance in the territory in 1898. Kabalega and Mwanga who had recently fallen out with the British were deported to the Seychelles. The importance of Buganda tribe support to the British overrule was symbolized with their calling the whole territory of the protectorate 'Uganda,'

In Tanganyika the Germany continued to face stiff resistance to their authority in Tanganyika in the interior and for years their trading caravans were heavily guarded by military patrols. In southern- central Tanganyika the Hehe conducted successful campaign of guerilla attacks against the Germany trading caravans and patrols which lasted unti1l1896; It was very costly for the Germans more than 250 Germany soldiers were killed; Chief Mkwawa the leader of the up rising was finally defeated and chose to commit' suicide rather than surrendering, In the Far East the Yao held out until 1899. The initial conquest in East Africa just gave Germany little breathing space, in 1905-1907 the Maji-Maji uprising with wide spread armed resistance which heavily costing to the Germany.

In West Africa the biggest primary resistance was the Mandika people under the leadership of Samori, it was the single formidable military opponents to the French. He commanded an Army of 30,000 men mostly foot-soldiers but containing of corps of cavalry, they were well armed with muskets and riffles imported from Sierra Lean or manufactured and repaired by the Mandika metal workers. After clashes with the French troops in the early 1880s a Mandika-French treaty was concluded in 1887.

The British occupation in West Africa also faced a lot of resistance it had battles with Asante who
resented foreign domination of the coastal trade, in. 1874 the British invaded the Asante and defeated their army burnt their capital city called Kumasi. But by 1895 under the rule of Asantehena Prempe, ASante power had revived.     .

These begun after the establishment of colonial rule and colonial economy, and were motivated
mainly by land alienation forced labor, cattle confiscation, tax imposition to Africans, oppression,
injustice, high level of intimidation and violence. Such secondary resistance included.

The Herero up rising in 1904 were over hundred Germany traders and settlers and were able to
regain most of their occupied land from the colonizers. But as like other African resistance disunity
undermined their success after failing to convince the Nama to join them until it was too late. By then the Germany had brought in reinforcements from abroad and had isolated the Herero in the Waterberg. When the Herero broke out of their encirclement, the Germany general Von Trotha issued his notorious 'extermination' proclamation.

The Herero are no longer subjects of Germany. They have murdered and plundered the Herero
nation must leave the country. If it will not do so I shall compel it by force inside the Germany
territory all Herero tribesmen armed or unarmed man or woman with or without cattle will be shot.

These are last words to the Herero nation from me, the great general of the mighty Germany. The
retreating Herero were driven west words into the Karahari desert where tens of thousands died of
thirsty and starvation. By the time Trotha withdrawn the proclamation in 1905, only 16,000 out
of 80,000 Herero were left alive within the territory and only 2000 refugees reached neighboring

Also the Nama too had an uprising under the leadership of Hendrink Witbooi they waged successful guerilla warfare campaign they managed to engage the Germany troops until 1905, when the aging  Witbooi was killed. There after Nama unity gradually fell apart. Other Nama leaders continued the resistance into 1907, but the Germany gradually reasserted their control. The aftermath of the war was witnessed Germany confiscating all the cattle of the Nama and disposing all their chiefs, occupying their rand and forcing them to subordinate to Germany rule over their land.

Another secondary resistance in Germany was the Germany East Africa. In July 1905 the uprising
rose up in the southern part of the colony in the hinter of Kilwa. It begun in the Matumbi hills, when the local people resisted the colonial government attempts to force the local people to grow cotton. The Germany were staggered with the wide spread of the uprising, success strength and the belief in Maji-Maji, the Germany pursued 'scorched-earth policy destroying villages and laying waste vast stretches of southern and central Tanzania.    

By the end of 1905 the-Germany had brought in reinforcement, recruited from Somali land and the New Guinea, by 1906 the Germany gradually brought back the central highlands region under their control. According to the Germany 26,000 African fighters and more 50,000 Tanzania children and women died due to hunger and starvation. Apart from loss of life as the result of the uprising Germanys ware propelled to revise their harsh treatment of the Africans as to avoid a similar resistance they encouraged mission-school attendance and made European employers accept some responsibility for the healthy of their workers. The thousands of Tanzanian who died in the resistance were an important inspiration to the later generation of nationalism in modern Tanzania, which gave the country her independence in 1961.    

Small Scale African Resistances
Large scale /Mass Scale African Resistances

i. Small Scale African Resistances
The African resistances against the imposition of colonial rule took place in different areas. Initially, it involved different ethnic groups led by their local leaders who organized small groups to take arms against European invaders. This kind of African resistance is considered as a small scale uprising since it covered small area. Some small scale resistances will be discussed below:

The Hehe resistance 1891-1898
This was one among the most notable active small scale resistances, which were very fierce since they involved military action sand was well organized. The leader of this reaction was Chief Mkwawa who is also known as chief Mkwavinyika. The name Mkwavinyika means the conqueror of lands. The Hehe resistance was caused by the German occupation of several areas in Mainland Tanganyika (the present day Tanzania) such as Ugogo, Ukaguru,Usagara and Mpwapwa, which had economic importance to the Hehe ruling class.These occupied areas were potential for trade activities thus German occupation threatened the economic position of Hehe ruling class.

Before taking up arms,' Chief Mkwavinyika (Mkwawa) sent a delegation with present to meet the German administrators at the coast. The Germans responded by requesting the chief to surrender his sovereignty and they showed a disregard of the Chief Mkwavinyika's request by killing all the men in his delegation. Chief Mkwavinyika reacted by blocking all- the' caravan routes passing through the area to disrupt the German trade, hence they failed to obtain raw materials from the interior. This event angered the German rulers and decided to send a military force led by commander of German forces. Chief Mkwavinyika's force managed to defeat the German forces on 16th August 1891 at Lugalo. The defeat was associated with killing of several people, including commander of the German forces, Emil Von Zelewsky, and three hundred (300) African soldiers. The Mkwavinyika's army also captured about three (3) cannons and three hundred (300) rifles from the German forces. The defeat of German by the Hehe actually shocked the colonial administration and showed the strength of Hehe's army. After three years the German prepared their force for another attack.

Before attacking the Hehe empire, the German administrators sent a delegation to chief Mkwavinyika which required him to pay for the war indemnity he 'had caused on Germans, recognizing the Kaiser's sovereignty, surrender the war weapons he captured at first attack, stop conquering the neighboring territory and allow the European Missionaries and traders to access the Uhehe by the routes he blocked. Chief Mkwawa rejected all the demands.

Germans attacked the Hehe in October 1894 and -managed to capture Kalenga, which was Mkwavinyika's capital. He escaped and organized a guerrilla warfare, which extended for about four years. Later on the German patrol caught up Mkwavinyika in July 1898, and surrounded him while he was very tired, sick and alone; he decided to shoot himself rather than being captured while still alive. This marked the decline of the Hehe ruling class and the beginning of German control.

(b) The Nyamwezi resistance 1891 - 1894:
 This was another reaction against Germany colonial rule which was staged by- Nyarnwezi under Chief, Isike. Initially the Nyamwezi had business relations with Germans, they conducted trade together. But later on the Nyamwezi realized that the German's intention of monopolizing their trade which passed through their land to important trading centres like Ujiji; and Mwanza, controlling land and ruling them. In order to avoid the German control, Chief Isike organized his people to take up arms and closed the trade routes for number of months. Due to poor weapons Nyamwezi were defeated by the well organized and equipped German forces. In 1893 Chief Isike's fort was badly destroyed by German forces. Chief Isike decided to blow up himself together with his family ·in the gun powder magazine rather than being captured by the Germans.

(c) The Yao resistance:
The Yao of Southern Tanganyika, under Chief Machemba, staged an active resistance against Germans, In 1890, a German force of three companies was sent to Machemba, but he defeated them. Furthermore, four companies were sent against Machemba and were also defeated by his strong forces. In 1890, German Governor summoned chief Machemba to the coast but he refused to go. When Machemba rejected to surrender, the Germans took up arms against Machemba. The German-Yao confrontation went on until 1899. This resulted into occupation of Machemba's fort in 1899. They imprisoned his followers but Chief Machemba escaped into Mozambique. This event marked the end of Yao reaction and imposition of German rule, over the region.

(d) Abushiri and Bwana Heri resistance:
This was African reaction along the coastal region where rich Arabs and local merchants had invested in coconut and cereal plantations in a large scale as well as trade activities. These
plantation activities depended much on the interior, but the German company suppressed slave trade, hence affected the supply of labour to plantations. This event threatened the Arabs and, local merchant plantation owners. In 1888" the company agents imposed taxes and began to collect it from all people including feudal lords and rich merchants.

The coastal African resistance was led by Abushiri bin Salumel Hathi of Pangani. He organized his force and began to fight in August 1888, when the German company officials established themselves and hoisted the German flag in all the major coastal towns. In other cases, they opposed mosques and began to regulate the trade along caravan routes. The fighting extended to many coastal areas, thus other coastal people in Bagamoyo also joined the Abushiri's force against Germans.

The Abushiri resistance became so stiff that, the British joined the German forces by utilizing their naval forces, which had been used to suppress slave trade in the Indian Ocean, In order to make effective suppression, the German Chancellor sent major Hermann Von Wissman, a soldier and an, explorer with experience in different East African areas, He commanded German forces and recruited Mercenaries with the aim of' employing this force to crush the Abushiri uprising. These mercenaries comprised 600 Sudanese, 20 Turkish police, 400 Zulus, 21 officers and some soldier's from Tanganyika.

Starting from May, 1889, the German forces, under Major Von Wissman, were suppressing the Abushiri and regained most of the coastal towns within a few months: Finally, the leaders of this resistance were weakened, thus failing to co-ordinate their attacks. They faced strong German counter-attack. Abushiri fled to Mpwapwa in the Interior but he was weakened by Major Von Wissmans attack when German forces attacked Mpwapwa. Abushiri’s efforts were also' affected by a person known as Magaya-a Jumbe orvillage headman inUsagara who betrayed him to the Germans. At the end Abushiri was captured and publicly hanged on 15th December, 1889:

Another coastal resistance was led by Bwana Heri of Uzigua, who fought against German forces since January 1889, when the German forces captured Saadani. Bwana Heri escaped to the interior where he built a fortress and staged a strong resistance against German forces .until April 1890. Later on, Bwana Heri surrendered and ran away. After suppressing Abushiri and Bwana Heri the German forces faced another strong resistance in the southern coastal areas of Tanganyika. This was led by Hassani Bin Omari Makunganya of Kilwa. He organized and led a strong attack against German fortress in Kilwa, but he was defeated by the German forces. After his defeat, Hassan bin Omari fled to the inland where he organized another attack. However, the Germans realized his plan and pre- empted it.

Finally, Hassan bin Omari Makunganya was captured and hanged on a mango tree in Kilwa Kivinje, in May 1890. Since then, the mango tree was used by Germans for hanging all African victims publicly so as to threaten and warn Africans not to engage in further revolts and alert those who disobeyed' the government orders" The coastal active resistance against Germans was brought to an end by the defeat and hangings of Omari bin Hassan Makunganya .

(e)The Bunyoro resistance in Uganda:

This resistance was organized by Kabarega against British administration in 1893. Kabarega was reacting against the Christian factions used by captain Lugard of British government to fight mortems in Buganda and later the other Moslem forces in Bunyoro. Later Kabaka Mwanga joined forces with Kabarega. This was Kabaka's response against the British since he had been accused and punished by the British commissioner of smuggling and selling of Ivory without British commissioner's consent. As he was discontented with this situation, Kabaka moved to Buddu where he organized a military force of loyal Buganda to make another attack against British administration 'of which he was defeated. He joined Kabarega's force again in Lango to react against the British administration. Finally; the British forces defeated both Kabarega and Kabaka's forces and' sent for exile in Seychelles in 1899. The British completely subdued Uganda by 1900, from then afterwards the British government employed Buganda agents to administer other areas of Uganda.

(f) The Mazrui Dynasty's resistance in Kenya:
The Mazrui dynasty in Kenya involved an Arab ruling family and rich merchants. This group of people staged resistance against the British in June 1895. This resistance aimed at fighting against the Imperial British East African Company, hoping to defeat and regain their independence. The Mazrui resistance attempted different measures, such as burning of towns along the coastal areas: The Mazrui's attack was defeated by British government when employed its puppet Rashid bin Salim. After being defeated, the Mazrui escaped to German East Africa and gave the way to British administration which began to use local merchants and their subordinates to save as local administrators as well' as agents for judiciary.

(h) The Somali resistance in Kenya:

This was another active resistance staged by the Somali people of North Eastern Kenya. These people engaged in, pastoralism and lived by moving with their livestock from one place to another in search of pasture and water. This was done when they experienced decline of water and pasture in one area. Basically, the Somali people depended on land for their economic activities, but the imposition of British rule in Kenya affected their freedom of movement as it- was disturbing their plans. The Somalis reacted by carrying out a number of attacks against British in their areas. An example of he Somali attack was that made at the place known as Yonte, an area that was a British outpost. The British administration responded by sending their armed forces, which fought against Somalis and finally managed to defeat them in 1901:

(i) The Nandi resistance.
Nandi was another important ethnic group in the interior of Kenya that resisted against the British invasion. They lived in the area of Rift Valley and occupied a fertile land used for crop production and livestock keeping. The Nandi staged resistance against the British under their
leaders, Koitalel, who was later killed by the British.

The Nandi depended on land for their economic activities, but the construction of telegraphic lines and railway across the area occupied by the Nandi prevented them from carrying out their economic activities. These British activities disrupted the Nandi's economic position. The Nandi responded against the British by making an attack on the British military positions, cutting off the telegraphic wires, attacking the British caravans passing across their territory, and raiding the railway depots. The Nandi believed that they had superior weapons and strong military to invade the British as they had done for neighbouring territories. They also believed that their land would one day be occupied by foreigners. This belief had been prophesied by Kimnyoles Prophet.

The British government responded to the. Nandi attacks by sending a number of expeditions against the Nandi but they failed to suppress the Nandi forces. The British decided to use another attempt by calling a meeting to reach some terms with the Nandi’s, but that meeting was a disguise aimed at murdering the Nandi leader. They murdered Koitalel continued to resist until 1907 when some of the members were sent to exile. Finally, the Nandi were defeated by the British forces and since then British took control over the land of Nandi.

(ii) The Large Scale African Resistance
The large scale African resistance against colonial rule took place in various areas and covered a large part and in other cases involved a number of ethnic groups. Some case studies about African resistance' from different areas in African continent are discussed below.

(a)Majimaji Resistance 1905- 1907
It is not possible to recognize any simple pattern in African resistance to European rule. Samori fought a long defensive battle against the -French. Lobengula saw the futility of military resistance. People such as Nandi reacted immediately in violent manner to the British advance. Other groups, having failed to put up much of a resistance at first; were persuaded to rebel against the European later. Often a rekindling of traditional religious belief was combined with armed rebellion. An example of such a revolt was the Maji-Maji Rising of 1905-1907 in Tanzania.

The Majimaji resistance broke out in the southern Tanganyika against the German control. This is a large and popular African uprising in Africa. The term "Majimaji" is derived from Swahili word "Maji" which -means water. Majimaji was magic water drawn from river Rufiji and mixed up with maize and millet flour after mixing up the water was thrown on the various fighters so as to protect them from German bullets in war, The leader of the Maji maji uprising was known as Kinjekitile Ngware, who lived at Ngarambe in Southern Tanganyika. He organized his followers 'and began to fight in July 1905, the Matumbi of Nandete in Rufiji were the first to take up arms.

Majimaji uprising was highly mobilized and its followers possessed courage as well as determination against the German rule in Tanganyika. It took a wide coverage' and speeded very fast from Matumbi of Nandele in Rufiji to other areas like Uluguru, Masasi, the Makonde plateau, Songea, the Kilombero Valley, North Dar es Salaam and the Mahenge plateau. In these areas African communities such as Zaramo, Ngoni, Bena, Mwera, Ngindo; Pogoro, Mbunga, Ndendeule and Luguru united together to fight against German rule.

Causes of Majimaji Resistance
(i) The forced cotton growing that was ordered by the German government in 1902. The Akidas were ordered by the governor to establish cotton plots where African communities of southern Tanzania had to work with little pay or provide a free labour, they also worked under inhuman. This situation dissatisfied the people and decided to take up arms against Germans.
(ii) Forced labour was another African grievance. Africans were forced to work on railway construction as well. as settler farms.: Africans were humiliated by the Germans and friends while working. Generally, the colonial treatment towards Africans was inhuman.    

(iii) The imposition of heavy taxes and fines on Africans by he Germans. 'the taxes were unfair and had to be paid in the form of money. For example, the tax imposed for hut was to be paid in form of money for about three rupees. But Africans did not have money; the only way of getting money was through selling labour power to the Germans to earn money to pay different taxes imposed. The collection of tax aimed at raising the revenue for the colonial administration but this system was new to the Africans. They were also discontented because the colonialist used their land for production while at the same time forced them to pay taxes.

(iv)The Germans disregarded African traditional beliefs .and practices, such as dances and circumcision. They overlooked the African religious leaders and condemned sacred places as the areas of African witchcraft. The disruption of traditional practices disappointed the Africans thus decided to stage resistance against Germans.    

(v) The hostile and harsh treatment of the people by the German appointees, such as the Akidas. Akidas and their local police treated African people brutally. Their ruthless ruling system also discredited Africans hence lived like slaves.    

(vi) African people wanted to regain their lost independence. Most of the young men felt that they had lost their manhood. by submitting to the Germans. The German occupation at the initial stage involved different ways which resulted into disunity among the Africans. Later Africans realized the need to unite together so as to-fight against common enemy, that is, German foreigners.

(vii) Africans wanted to oppose adultery, rapping and fornication exercised by German mercenaries and their house boys. These practices were crimes to African communities and the offenders had to be punished. This was predominant among the Ngindo communities. But the Germans and their house boys exercised all the practices that were regarded as crimes and disregarded the Ngindo taboo. The local communities, especially the Ngindo, were discontented with these events hence took up arms against Germans.

(viii) The Ngoni people wanted to revenge for the killings of 1898. During the initial stage of imposing German rule, a large -number of Ngoni people were murdered and their properties destroyed or taken by German forces. This event created bitterness, hence resulting into taking up of arms by Ngoni’s against Germans.

(xi) The influence of Kinjekitile, who was an. effective leader with ability of organizing people, instilled confidence in the African people by requesting them to unite and take up arms against the German invaders. The Kinjekitile's force believed that they would be immune to German bullets as the water sprinkled on them would turn the bullets into water.  The Majimaji resistance ended in. 1907 and African forces were defeated by the Germans. Many fighters were killed and those who survived lost the hope as the 'magic' water had failed to protect them from German bullets. Most of the fighters escaped to Mozambique, many were hanged while others surrendered to the Germans.

Causes for African Defeat

(i) Africans employed poor weapons such as arrows, spears and outdated guns against their enemies who used superior automatic machines like machine guns. They also lacked fighting skills and were poorly organized as opposed to their counterpart, the Germans, who were well trained and organized.

(ii)The, Germans were supported in many ways, such as weapons and mercenary soldiers from Sudan, Germany, New Guinea, and Somalia. All these reinforced the Germans and led to emergence of large army, which could attack Africans strongly and effectively.

(iii)The Africans lacked military communication infrastructures. They failed to communicate between one ethnic group and another. Every ethnic group fought in isolation in different areas and their leaders had different motives and grievances.

(iv)Failure of magic water 'Majimaji' to turn German bullets into water and protect the African fighters. A large number of the warriors were killed during the war hence others lost faith over their religion.

(v)The Majimaji uprising covered a small area, hence failing to cooperate a number of African powerful communities, like the Nyamwezi and Hehe in the interior. These powerful communities could bring support to African forces.

(vi)The effect of scorched-earth policy employed by Germans. This policy involved destruction of African residences and destroying crops and property/ thus famine caused deaths among –the African fighters since many of them were starving.

Impacts of Majimaji Resistance
(i)The Majimaji resistance made Germans ruler to reform their administration so as to avoid, another uprising in Tanganyika. These reforms were made under Governor Lord Rothenberg. They also changed their attitudes towards Africans. Governor Rothenberg introduced some important measures to improve Africa services, like education and health, farming and communication system. He also rejected extra taxation of Africans and abolished corporal punishment, The Governor recognized traditional chiefs, stopped forced labour and began to punish German settlers who mistreated the African workers.

(ii)It brought together many African communities such as Ngindo,Zaramo, Ngoni and Matumbi to resist against the European invaders

(iii)It led to the destruction of properties since the Germans used the scorched-earth policy which involved burning of villages and crops in all areas with African forces.

(iv)A large number of Africans lost their lives. It is estimated that between 75, 000 and 120, 000 Africans, including their leaders and soldiers, were killed by the German forces while other people died of diseases and starvation. A large part of the southern Tanganyika became depopulated

(v)The Majimaji resistance led to the emergence of severe famine since the German soldiers destroyed farms and granaries during the war. This period of famine was known as funga funga period among the people of south eastern Tanganyika.

(vi) The majimaji resistance led to the displacement of many African families during the war. Due to fear and insecurity, many people escaped to different directions to look for other areas of settlement where they thought to be peaceful. The war also influenced family separation among the African communities.

(vii) The war laid the foundation for nationalism in Tanganyika, because after the uprising Africans learnt a lot and adopted a new method of resistance against colonial in Tanganyika and disregarded their ethnic differences.


(a) Reaction to French Invasion Senegambia
French military conquests in West Africa, were first directed against Senegambia during the rule of Mohmadou Lamine, and against Guinea then under Samori Toure. The major aim of the French was to capture the trading centers of Western Sudan and the strategic area between Upper Senegal and Niger. They had already built warehouses and fortresses along these rivers to control trade in palm oil, groundnuts, and gold from the interior. However, the power base of African ruling classes lay in the control of this trade. This was one of the factors of the conflict between the French imperialists forces and the African rulers.

The French employed a number of techniques to conquer the territory One of this was to- utilize existing local differences, or to initiate new conflicts between African ruling groups. To be able to conquer Senegambia, the French formed alliances with the empires of Tukulor under Sheikh Ahmaddu, Bandu Empire under Umar Penda and Khasso under Luku Sambala. In so doing the French managed to' conquer and subjugate the weaker states.

(b) Reaction to French Invasion of Guinea
Samori Toure of Guinea illustrates for many people the courage and determination of African resistance to European conquest. Samori Toure was successful for sixteen years in preventing his own state from being colonized by the French. Although he was ultimately defeated, the duration of his resistance was in itself a victory, which can only be understood by looking back to the earlier period of his life.

Samori Toure was born into a Malinke family, the first child of a -farmer who had strongly family connections with the Dyula, the trading community of the Malinke people. The Dyula lived in the great commercial centers on the northern edge of the West African forest belt separating the inland regions from the Gulf of Guinea. They were also very famous in the commercial centers along the trans-Sahara trade routes such as Timbuktu, Taghaza and Walata. Commodities such as cloth, iron tools and salt were carried by the Dyula merchants and exchanged with forest products such as palm oil, kola nuts, and ivory. Fire arms also occupied a very important position in-this trade

At the age of eighteen he asked to be released from his duties on the farm and be allowed to join the Dyula. For about five years he built, up strong, business and made many contacts throughout the Western Sudan. This life was interrupted in 1852 when his mother 'was made captive by' Soni 'Birama, the King of Bisandugu.Samori offered his services as a soldier to Soni Birama in return for his mother's freedom.

Samori's power and leadership attracted many followers and within a few years he found that he was strong enough to be independent of Soni Birama, He set out to control the whole of Malinke land and thus to maintain peace, law and order. He was joined by many minor leaders and supported, by his family.

By 1879 his territory had stretched from Sierra Leone 'to the Ivory Coast in the West from Bamako in the north to the Liberian borders in the south. His authority was based more on his military power than on his religious leadership. His arm was composed of young captive r, soldiers trained mostly as foot soldiers-the infantry. His army could have at total of ten or twelve thousand fully equipped soldiers.
Samori determined to defend commercial centers and the trade routes, always sought to acquire and maintain regular supplies of firearms, ammunitions and horses for his army. He was helped by the Dyula merchants in this endeavour. The merchants obtained the firearms through trade with European merchants. Samori further maintained a group of skillful craftsmen who repaired and even made guns.

In 1882, French forces of occupation started advancing towards Bamako. They demanded that Samori should keep away from the large Bambara and Mandingo markets. Samori rejected the demand and managed to keep the French off up to 1890. From 1891 to 1898 Samori conducted guerrilla warfare. He organized an excellent system of military intelligence to spy on enemy troop movements.

Why Samori Toure Fought Against the French (1891-1898)
(i) The French activities of selling arms to Samori's enemies, such as Tieba of Sikasso alarmed Samori Toure. The French' aimed at weakening the Mandika so as to acquire it smoothly.

(ii) Samori Toure was shocked by the failure of his plan of playing off the British against the French. He had signed an agreement with the British on non-interference in each other's sphere of influence. Unfortunately, the British refused to support Samori against the French.

(iii) Samori Toure wanted to protect the independence of his empire. The use of force by the French in acquiring colonies could not be tolerated by Samori Toure    

(iv)The French wanted to conquer Mandika when Samori's empire had reached at its peak with military supremacy and economic prosperity. The French therefore threatened Samori's territorial expansion into areas which they claimed belonged to them.

(v)Samori wanted to safeguard trade. He was determined to, defend commercial centres and the trade routes and maintain regular supplies of firearms.

Reasons as to why Samori Toure Managed to Contain (Fight) the French Forces for so long?    

(i) Strong army. Samori Toure had established strong army of approximately 12,000 men and about 90,000 reserves. He had a standby army, trained military men who could be taken in emergence, cases to help the permanent army.

(ii) Modern weapons. Samori Toure had 'excess to modern arms that he had acquired from the coastal traders' that he had been friend with them. Samori Toure had established friendship with the coastal traders for quite some time. lie also had military workshops which supplied him with weapons and repaired his defected weapons.

(iii) Samori Toure had a lot of wealth from trade in slaves, gold and colanuts, which was utilized in rewarding his workers and soldiers for their services.

(iv) Some of the Samori soldiers had served in the French-army where they had acquired modern military techniques and so were able to respond effectively to the invaders. These soldiers passed those skills to the rest of the Army.

(v) He was determined to maintain and preserve his independence in the eyes of Europeans advance. This motivated him to resist for a long time.

(vi) Samori Toure established state control of agriculture -and markets to ensured regular food supply for the army. Availability of food to the soldiers encouraged them to fight for long time.

(vii) The use of guerrilla or commando tactics of surprise ambushes and right raids. This' helped Samori Toure occasionally to win the war. 'The French soldiers found the Mandika people too difficult to control

(viii) He used scorched earth military technique such as burning villages and destroying crops in order to make the French starve when they reached the area.
(ix) Samori Toure got support from the Mandika people in national war of defense. This support helped Samori Toure to resist for a long time.

Why Samori Toure was Finally Defeated?
(i) Anglo-French conspiracy. Between 1889 and 1890 Samori had reached an agreement with the British to supply arms to Samori's armies up to 1896. But in 1896 the British breached the treaty by occupying Sierra Leone thus blocking Samori's access to arms supplies. In the same year British forces occupied the Gold Coast making it impossible for Samori to form a military alliance with Ashanti.

(ii) Shortage of military weapons. Surrounded by enemies, Samori doubled efforts to manufacture arms within his empire. However, these were not sufficient for the' ever-increasing war demands. In 1889 the French managed to defeat Samori's forces. Samori was captured and exiled to Gabon where he died two years later.    

(iii) Disunity among rulers. The resisters were unable to unite together as their enemy was common. Samori sought alliance with AImed Seku of Tukola and Tieba of Sikasso with no success. In fact, these rulers even assisted the French in defeating Samori.

(iv) A disciplined and well organized army helped to defeat Africans. The colonial armies were better trained and more experienced in strategy and tactics. Hence the armies led by Samori Toure did not stand a chance. Thus the Africans were taught a lesson, that those "modern" societies with institutionalized war and professionalism in modern fighting techniques
could never be defeated by warfare.    

(v) The Europeans wanted to preserve their new acquired economic positions and that made them fight at all costs, ruthlessly and untiringly.

(vi)Instability and public misery were also a major factor in defeat. The wars of resistance of Samori Toure were fought with bitterness which culminated into greater devastation. Villages were set on fire, farmlands destroyed animals looted. This ended up with loss of property, year and famine and stirred up local resistances.

Lack of support from communities. The non- Mandika communities and non- Muslims in the empire did not give him full support because they had been mistreated during his leadership. Some decided to support the French forces against him.
The Mashona - Matebele (Chimurenga) Uprising in Zimbabwe (1896-1897)
The whites created their settlement in Mashonaland in 1890.They thought that the Shona might thank the whites and were grateful to them since they could protect them against their traditional rivals, the Ndebele. But the matter was not so. The whites had misconceptions about the Ndebele, for they thought that with the fall of Lobengula, the son of Mzilikazi, the Ndebele power was completely dwarfed and could not stage war. As a result, in 1896, the whites were caught by surprise, for there was a more or less joint uprising between the Shona and Ndebele. In April 1896, the Matebele started a war that spread like summer fire to the Mashona tribe. In June of the same year, the war broke out in Mashonaland. The war was motivated by outstanding political, social, and economic dissatisfactions against the white men.

The Causes of the Uprising
Land expropriation: The B.S.A.C. and the whites confiscated and gave the white settlers the better and more fertile land of the Mashona without consulting the local chiefs, for formerly land was considered the property of the community and it was the chiefs' duty to distribute lands. On the other hand, the Ndebele were pushed into the reserves of the Shangani and Gwani, which had water shortages and were infested with tsetse flies respectively. Worse still, the Ndebele's population was too high to inhabit this barren land. The situation was as the nduna Gambo said One cause of dissatisfaction and unrest is that after we have lived many years in a spot, we are told that the white man has purchased it and we have to go" to reserve. That incited the people to

Forced labour: The prevalent policy of the whites was to compel Africans in both Matebeleland and Mashonaland to supply labour. The commissioner in each district was given power to compel chiefs to offer labourers in mineral and farm circles. All able-bodied men had to work regardless of their former status in the society. This was done against their will. Labourers were recruited by armed forces or by police who went around into villages to seize people by force.

Harsh treatment: The 1893 Mashonaland and Matebeleland situation was as Sir Martin Richard I, the resident commissioner, said: "The system was no better than slavery." The employers and native
commissioners used the Sjambok, a kind of whip, to mistreat the local people. The elderly people were flogged and killed in public, and the conditions in the mines were deplorable.

Taxation policies: In 1894, the Hut Tax was introduced. Some of the Shona chiefs and their subjects refused new laws introduced by the colonial administration as well as the British technique of collecting taxes. There were also cases of officials' grabbing cattle, goats, and grains from the people who could not manage to pay taxes. Tax defaulters were crucified and at times jailed without trial or inflicted to manual labour; thus, the nature of taxation policies, plus other discontents, prompted the Chimurenga uprising.

Low wages: Because the Africans were subjected to forced labour in mines and on white farms, while they were lowly paid as return for their toil under atrocious conditions, including the nature of the work and long working hours. Interference in the Shona trade: The desire of the B.S.A. company to monopolise trade in Mashonaland contributed to the uprising. The Shona had for a considerable length of time developed a trade relationship with the Portuguese for which they sold gold-dust, ivory for guns, and other cheap manufactured products. The British, however, intended to possess that commercial activity by force in which they wanted the Shona sell and buy from South Africa. Worst still, the company wanted to control gold mining and not in buying gold from Africans. Since the Shona failed to man the situation, war was the only option. The Ndebele were also disturbed by the whites' confiscation of their trade links, however local and insignificant they were.

The abolition of induna age regiments among the Matebele: The Matebele were made to suffer socially and psychologically. Military towns were outlawed and the Ndunas were deprived their power, importance and position. Above all, it was embarrassing for the British to nominate the Shona policemen to enforce law and order in Ndebele areas. Such social grievance, coupled with other factors, helped to excite the Ndebele community into the uprising.

Favoritism: The colonial government elevated injustices in both the Shona and Ndebele societies. There was very little justice bestowed on the African people. Most often, the colonial government gave positions of responsibility to people who were untrained, unsuited, and unaccepted by the people. The administration even enacted laws that protected the white population against the Africans. For instance" the whites had fair punishments in comparison to those of the blacks. The
traditional chiefs, who had yielded great powers, were saddened when reduced to the lot of commoners. The foreign police were given the responsibility to ensure observance of law and order and maltreated the Africans,

Loss of cattle: Cattle were the backbone of people's livelihood. It is believed that Lobengula possessed 250,000 cattle before his death. The Ndebele were only permitted to keep 40,930 out of the total number, and t many of them were offered to the volunteers or to the B.S.A.C. The others were dispatched to South Africa. Worse still, there was a render pest outbreak in 1895 killed nearly two million cattle. On a sadder note, it was portrayed that some animals were shot dead on the
command of the white man. Due to this grievance and others, war was unavoidable,

Renderpest calamities in association with the white man's presence: The Render pest epidemics and swarm of locusts that invaded had dismantled food crops. Traditional religious leaders said that the
Render pest occurred due to the presence of the white men. The word spread that the ancestral spirits were angered with the presence and activities of the white men. In this process, the local population was provoked and finally they joined the war of resistance.

Missionaries disregarded the traditions and customs of the Shona - Ndebele people: It has been argued "the missionaries failed to understand the attachment the Shona had for their traditional religion and their own form of government". In Matebe1eland, the missionaries wanted the Ndebele to alter their culture, ignoring especially their religion based on the Mwari cult. That was the reason probably why the mission stations were attacked during the uprising.

Desire for their lost independence: It encouraged hostility on the part of the Ndebele to dismantle their monarchy. The Ndebele people resisted in the hope of repossess their lost independence. None of the Nduna was appointed in any responsibility of administration, and as regards the Mashonaland, the white men had dominated even the chiefs' power to chastise the wrongdoers. Their own discipline was extremely brutal. The uprising therefore wanted to re attain the pre- colonial administration.

Jameson's raid: For long time, dissatisfactions among the Shona - Ndebele people were piling up accumulating, but hardly ignited the war. The immediate cause of the uprising was the Jameson's raid. In December 1895 Dr. L.S. Jameson commanded a party of policemen to capture and defeat Transvaal for Cecil Rhodes. The Boers however, decisively overpowered him. To avoid the shame, Jameson was returned to Britain. This was clear sign to the Ndebele that even the British were weak and could be subdued like other African tribes. Hence, the Shona and Ndebele adjudged to attack British. After seeing that they were not unbeatable. The uprising ended in 1897, but with a
number of repercussions. The Africans who were fighting to repossess their independence achieved little success. Nevertheless, the Ndunas' importance was considered after the 1893 war and they were appointed as officials in colonial administrative structures and were to given remunerations.

The Course of the War
The Mlimo cult and the medium spirit leaders mobilized the people in the uprising. The Matebele mobilized the Mkwati and Siginyamotsha, who had been most active. The Mashonaland, Banda, and Ishiwa grouped the Shona into military regiments.

The Ndebele chief priests, Ungulu, and Lobengula's son, Nyamanda, enspirited the Ndebele uprising. Women, children, men, young and old fight and get rid off the white men from their land. The African warriors organised the war and took the whites by surprise and it costed the whites' lives. By 1897, the whites with the new coordination and tactics and defeated the Ndebele and finally the Shona.

Consequences of the Chimurenga Uprising
The Chimurenga warriors were taught bitter lesson andmany of them died during the confrontation.

The BSAC administration incorporated and expropriated more fertile land and cattle as war indemnity.

The company administration received much criticizism from the colonial office for mistreatments of the natives. Then Cecil Rhodes guaranteed to make changes in governing the Matebeleland.

The Ndebele were redistributed new lands in the lowlands where they lived happily unperturbed by the company and European mistreatment.

The Ndebele indunas were considered and employed in various administrative positions under the BSAC administration.

Most of the educated Ndebele were given responsibilities as administrators in Mashonaland.

Mashonaland and Matebeleland were allocated to Most European settlers created their settlement in the fertile land that formerly belonged to Shona and Ndebele.

Many Africans adopted Christianity due to the inability of Mwari cult and the Chanimuka (medium spirit) to defeat the Whiteman.

Because of the failure in war the Mwari cult leaders could no longer command popularity in the eyes of a rising number of people abandoning traditional religion and adopting Christianity.

The confrontations witnessed the unification of traditional foes against the shared enemy, a cohesion that was exploited well.

The Ndebele's claims were recognized and were given worthy treatments from the whites, because the Ndebele looked for peace while the Shona persisted in war.

The Nama and Herero uprising 1904- 1907 (Namibia)
The German occupation and imposition of its colonial rule in Namibia met with a limited success in the 1880s and 1890s. The region was inhabited by three main ethnic groups; the first and second group comprised Bantu people of Ambo and Herero who engaged in crop cultivation and livestock keeping. The other group comprised the Nama who were Hottentots and engaged in Pastoralism. Both groups depended on land for cultivation and pasture, The history of Namibia in the nineteenth century was characterized by intense conflicts between the Nama and Herero who angered in Pastoralism and hunting. After the arrival of Europeans, the conflict was intensified since this foreigner' s used the. rivalry for their benefit. The Herero welcomed Germans who offered them a treaty of-protection and proposed to help them against the Nama. But this German and Herero alliance was opposed by the Nama leader Hedrick Witbooi since he understood the nature and real aims of Germans.

Chief Hedrick Witbooi realized that the Herero Chief could become just a mere subordinate chief under the German government The Nama and Herero rivalry threatened the German missionaries. Later on, in 1884, the Germans declared a protectorate over Namibia; they also occupied the region effectively. The German government introduced the settler policy between 1884 and 1904 which affected both the Nama and Herero hence accumulated a lot of grievances which resulted into uprising.

Causes of Nama and Herero Uprising
(i The imposition of forced labour in 1896: Germans wanted labourers to work in plantations and in the construction of infrastructures such as roads, railways as well as public buildings. The African communities, that is, Nama and Herero were not used to the manual labour hence resisted to.
work. The German government used a lot of force to obtain labourers Africans were forced to work in settler farms and mines. This discontented the Africans, thus deciding to take up arms against Germans.

(ii) Another reason for Nama and Hereto uprising was the cattle raiding that was done frequently by the German traders and settlers. But cattle was the most treasured commodity among the Herero and Nama communities, robbing of cattle threatened the economic interest of these African commodities    

(iii) Land alienation: This included grabbing much of the best grazing land in the central plateau of Namibia. The German government reserved the fertile land for settler settlement. The Nama and Herero depended on this land for cultivation and pasture; they were thrown out of this fertile land so as to give room for construction of railway and roads. This in turn created hostility between African communities and Germans.     .

(iv)Imposition of taxes: the Germans imposed taxes that had to be paid by Africans. They began to demand taxes in 1896. In order to make effective collection of taxes, Germans used force. But the African communities like the Eastern Herero and mbanderu, resisted by taking up arms against Germans.

(v) The destruction of traditional authority: after they had established their contrlt over Namibia, Germans did not pay attention to the region. For example, they imposed some policies without consulting the traditional chiefs from African communities. On the other hand, the Germans did not recognize the traditional rulers hence considered them as illiterate. Having been discontented with this situation, the Nama and Herero decided to resist against Germans so as to restore their traditional practice and their independence.     -

(vi)Harassment to the Herero indebted people by the Germans following the credit ordinance of 1903 that all debts had to be collected in one year time, after which the debt would be invalid. Initially, the German trader entered into commercial relationship with Africans, the Germans gained huge profits while Africans acquired a little profit. Many Africans were in debited by the Germans traders and were forced to pay back the debts. The Germans also lent some money to Africans at high interest rates, they also sold commodities to Africans on credit terms, but in most cases Africans failed to pay the money. The Germans urged the colonial government to enact laws that would enforce the Africans to payback the money. The law was enacted in 1903 and began to be implemented. Germans took the Africans livestock and land with the aim of selling them to regain their money. This law disappointed the African rulers and their subjects hence took up arms to resists against Germans:

(vii) The outbreak of Rinder pest disease: It. killed about ninety percent (90%) of Nama and Herero's cattle in 1903. This affected their economy and many sold their idle land to German settlers to sustain their life. But the rinder disease was interpreted by the religious leader's punishment from God since the Nama and IIerero cooperated with the whites, hence created bad luck in their communities, thus the people had to resist against the Germans so as to get rid of these misfortunes.

 (viii) The German control over the religious beliefs: The Nama believed on their traditional religions and trusted their religious' leaders like chief Witbooi. When their beliefs were threatened by the Germans, Chief Witbooi organized and motivated his subjects to resist against the Germans since he believed that his army would defeat the Germans. He also promised these people several benefits after the resistance. The Nama-Herero uprising went on until the end of 1905 when the Nama Chief, Witbooi, was killed. Since then the Nama unity began to decline gradually. The Namaleadership was succeeded by Morenga, but he was also killed. He was succeeded by Chief Simon cooper who continued the resistance until 1907 though the Germans reasserted their control. At the end of the uprising, the remaining Nama and Herero independence was destroyed' by the Germans forces. They confiscated their cattle. and deposed all their chiefs, the African commuriities who survived were subordinated, forced to work in German farms and mines. This created hatred between Germans and African communities up to the period of the first word war.

The effects of the Nama Herero Uprising

After the uprising, the Nama and Herero lost their cattle and land to Germans. They became very poor and lived in severe life that could not enable to live in a conducive environment and good life

The African communities, such as the Hereto lost their life, only 16, 000 Herero survived out of previous population of 80, 000. Whereas only' 9800 Nama were alive in 1911, compared to 20, 000 people who survived in 1892:

The chief township' in Namibia was officially abolished by the German government.

There was an increasing number of Germans in Namibia. For example, up to 1903 the number of Germans was aboutA, 640 but after the war, the number increased up to 14, 840 in 1913.

Namibia became a German colony and the German administration continued to be strong. For this reason, the Nama and Herero uprising did not materialize and had Very minimal effect compared to that of Majimaji in Tanganyika.     .

After the uprising, the German government introduced concentration camps where African women and children were grouped. In these camps they lived in bad conditions hence many of them died of sun, famine and very cruel condition of forced labour. The Nama-Herero uprising went on until the end of 1905 when the Nama chief Witbooi was killed. Since then the Nama unity began to decline gradually. The Nama leadership was succeeded by Morenga, but he was also killed. He was succeeded by Chief Simon cooper, who continued the resistance until 1907 though the German reasserted their control. At the end of the uprising, the remaining Nama and Herero independence was destroyed by the German forces. They confiscated their cattle and deposed all their chiefs. African communities which survived were subordinated, forced to work in German farms and mines. This created hatred between Germans and African communities up to the period of the first World' War.

There four major causes of African reaction to the colonial rule; These includes the following

Land alienation; whereby Africans arable fertile- land was taken by the colonialists and
they became landless. The land was the major live hood of African it was grabbed from
them and distributed to the white settlers and colonial state plantations as to reduce the
African to mere suppliers of cheap labor to the colonial plantations.

Imposition of taxation by the colonialists. From the 1898 head tax was levied on all adult
Africans in the colony of Tanganyika, at least 1 year or its equivalent this amounted to at least a month’s wage on white-owned mine or two months or more on the white- owned farm. Later alone other taxes like hut tax, gun tax, Matiti tax, aimed at forcing Africans to provide cheap labor to the colonialist plantations and social service, and to facilitate colonial administration expenditure. Such heavy taxation led to mass uprising of the African to oppose colonialism.

Cattle confiscation so as to break the backbone of African economy and to be forced to integrate into capitalist economy. The African societies who were pastoralists that depended much on the cattle for their live hood, people like the Herero, Masai, Sukuma, their cattle were confiscated.

Forced labor and forced cropping, Africans were forced to produce cash crops and also forced to provide cheap labor, e.g. Kipande system in Kenya. In places were production,
did not exist migrate -Labour was carried out, the adult men ere to move in the areas of production were only substance wage was provided, accommodation was provided for only one person, the work's family was there for to remain at home in some far-off rural area and try to grow enough food to feed themselves.

Provision of low wages of African who worked on European farms mines and office the major aim was to-break the self-sufficiency African rural economy. It was no longer enough for the family to feed, clothes, and house itself. And on top of that cash was to be found to pay taxes regardless of the family's income.    


African local rulers were thrown from their administration and lost control of their
people and independence in general where by the colonialist establish the notorious colonial rule. Thus resistance to the colonial rule.

Africans lost their control over their trade that they controlled and benefited from. The
colonialists established the so called 'legitimate trade' which isolated the African traders,
like Abushir and Bwana Heri who lost control of trade at the coast, Jaja of Opobo, the
Mandika Sarnori all these resistance as to regain their trade control.

Destruction of African agriculture, which led to the problem-of hunger and famine. The
colonialists opened cash crop plantations hence resistance.
Corporal punishment like caning of the lazy Africans
Destruction of African culture and introduction of western culture
Racism and segregation of Africans.
Intimidation and violence to the Africans.


To regain independence and their sovereignty this had been taken away by colonialists

To maintain peace and order in their society which they had experienced before the coming of colonialists.

To pursue and maintain African freedom which prevailed before the coming of colonizers.

To retain Africa self sustaining economy which was based on substance agriculture.

To fight and get rid of foreign domination of Europeans to make them go back to their home countries.

To avoid humiliation and subjugation of by the foreigners.

To fight against land alienation and cattle confiscation.

To establish African trade this had been overthrown by slave trade and the so called legitimate trade


There were four major types of African reaction towards the imposition of colonial rule.
Passive resistance.
Active resistance
Collaboration/ Adaption

This was the form of reaction against colonialists which did not involve the use of force or violent through applying weapons they applied non cooperative policy like the Seeds which were supposed to be cultivated in the colonial plantations were cooked before cultivating. Violating orders from colonialists, Avoid contacts and cooperation with the colonialists and

Such states included the weak states that lacked strong single leader and standing army to confront mighty colonial army. Most of such states were decentralized or (stateless) e.g. the Sukuma,Nandi etc

This involved physical reaction by using weapons and other violent means as away to resist
fight the colonialists. It was conducted in the societies that were economically and politically strongenough with military power to discharge the colonialists, e.g. Hehe, Asante etc.


It was implemented through formation of alliances with the colonizers, Treaties with Europeans as buy time for preparation for active resistance e.g. Menelik in Ethiopia Samori Toure in Mandika

This was used whereby solders were hired to fight against colonial penetration e.g. the Nguni were hired by Milambo, Isike, Nyungu ya Mawe of Ukimbu and Manera of Usangu against German.


The African resistance were not homogenous they varied from one society to another but depending on the environment, economic factors, political factors and social factors.


The societies which were military weak with no a standing army like the Sukuma, Nandi adopted passive reaction to the colonialists.

Societies that had been attacked with diseases, hunger and famine that made them physically unfit because of jiggers, small pox, they reacted passively to the colonial rule

Decentralized societies which had no single leader like Sukuma in Tanganyika Nandi in
Kenya and permanent shelter applied similar policy of passive.


Because of false treaties and agreement (bogus treaties) that were signed between the colonialist, and the African chiefs .they later realized that they were cheated and were unfair thus active resistance, e.g. Lubengula of Ndebele and Samori Toure of the Mandika and Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda

Societies that were economically strong and they had participated in long distance trade
and acquired many weapons; they had also enough food e.g. Buganda .Bunyoro, and the Mandika.
Geographical position of the society also determined the reaction to the colonialist in area of highlands like mountain and hills where they could see the enemy from a distance' e.g. Menelik in Ethiopia favored active reaction.

Existence of Islam ,in areas which were dominantly of Moslems they actively resisted because they saw colonialism as Christianity that wanted to convert them e.g. coastal areas of East and West Africa

False ideological beliefs of Africa e.g. Kinjikitile Ngware of maji maji war he said that by
using water from river Rufiji mixed with sorghum the German bullets will turn into water, thus false confidence led to-active resistance.

Existence of strong organization with powerful leaders that-organized and actively resisted colonialists e.g. chief Mkwawa of the Hehe, Lobengula of the Ndebele, Mirambo of the Nyamwezi .Kabarega of Bunyoro 

Existence of land alienation in areas, where African land was alienate and cattle were confiscated e.g. in majimaji uprising in Tanganyika, Shona and Ndebele in modern Zimbabwe Mau mau in Kenya

a)    They had wrong perception about the colonialists that; were just visitors who will go back soon to their homes, when they realized that they came to stay, they changed the reaction, e.g. Mwanga of Buganda

b)    Existence of missionaries who brain washed the African to accept colonialism through Christian indoctrination and missionary education that softened African hearts

c)    Existence of enmity between two local African tribe, e.g. Buganda collaborated with the European so as to fight Bunyoro who was her arch rival; Asante collaborated with the British to fight Ashante

d)    Military motives some African societies collaborated with the Europeans with the motives of acquiring weapons to use them in future, e.g. Menelik in Ethiopia. Who delibaletely collaborated with Italy so as he acquires weapons to her later.

e)    Some African societies collaborated because they regarded- Europeans as the source of commerce and trade, by collaborating with them they become rich e.g. Buganda.

(i)    Strong economy and the existence of mercenaries e.g. Ngoni in southern Tanganyika were hired by Mirambo.

(ii)    Presence of strong king to convince the mercenary e.g. Nyungu ya Mawe.


(ii)    Poor military techniques to fight with European troops. Most of Africans applied traditional weapons like spears arrows which ere out matched with those of the Europeans like Machine gun's Riffles that were superior,

(iii)    Disunity among African people, e.g, during Maji Maji war every tribe fought separately this enabled the Germany army to conquer the fragmented African troops.

(iv)    Some African helped Europeans to fight fellow Africans, e.g. the Hausa in Nigeria fought the Mandika on the behalf of the British the Sudanese soldiers were used in East Africa to suppress the resistance

(v)    Poor ideological believed and superstition most of African relied on their religious beliefs where by many African appealed to their ancestral and gods for protection e.g. Maji Maji war made many African to die

(vi)    The missionaries also played a big role in making African to be defeated, firstly they divided the strength of African i.e. the new converts regarded the resistant as ant Christianity and on top of that the missionaries who many African had put their confidence in them always ill advised the African leaders in favor of the Colonizers

(vii)    Natural calamities such as famine, drought and constant epidemics made it hard for African to maintain effective resistance against the Europeans most of the decentralized societies were so much affected with this factor since they did not have permanent agriculture

(viii)    The stable and sound colonial economy also contributed much to their victory they were able to get constant assistance from Europe as to facilitate the struggle against the African, unlike the Africans who could not get any foreign assistance

Ethiopia was the only country in Africa that escaped colonialism. By 19th century all African nations had been dominated by the colonialists save Ethiopia there are various reasons that explain why Ethiopia managed to escape colonialism, these include the following forces.

The defeat of Italy in the battle of Adowa in 1896 made other European countries to fear to
colonize Ethiopia; they thought that they may be defeated like Italy

The existence of powerful Emperors like emperor Theodore who once proposed to marry
the queen of England, Emperor Yahannes 1867-1876, Emperor Menelik, these powerful
leaders consolidated Ethiopia and made it strong enough to be colonized.

The existence of Ahamaric language which promoted solidarity and unity within the Ethiopian
society that made it solid able enough to resist the European powers from colonizing her

Poor geographical position and bad climatic condition such as- infertile soils, rocky lands
and mountains of Ethiopia discouraged many Europeans to colonize it

Accessibility the modern weapons from Europe .After the Brussels treaty of 1890 in Belgium
Ethiopia managed to get more weapons from Europe to defend her self.

The military strategic position of Ethiopia she is a mountainous country which could
strategically able to defend her self from any intruder

The existence of Christianity ever since even before the advent of colonialist in Africa.
Christianity has been adopted as a state religion; it brought awareness, civilization and unity
among the Ethiopians which made it impossible to be colonized easily.

Divisions among European powers during the colonization of Africa, every capitalist
country was fighting alone to get more colonies, emperor Menelik used such chance to
defend her country

The weakness of Italian army. Italy had just unified was not strong enough, this enabled
Ethiopia to defeat her at the battle of Adowa in 1896.
Significance of the Early Resistances

Primary resistances helped to shape the environment of later African politics because of their impacts upon the thinking and action of the colonial authorities. The formation of TANU in Tanganyika had connection with Maji Maji and other associations.

Primary resistances brought about the collapse of the commercial companies, which were at first employed by the German and British to open East Africa spheres of influence. So this forced the two governments to take direct responsibility.

Primary resistances helped to change the early European- attitudes of superiority. The thinking of administrators and settlers especially in Tanganyika and Southern Rhodesia after Maji I Maji and Shona and Ndebele rising of 1896 -1897, were dominated by fear of the repetition of such horrible outbreaks.

Primary resistances showed Europeans that Africans were not willing to be colonized by Europeans. They wanted to remain' with their traditional ways of living.

Primary resistances displayed African grievances to the Europeans, e.g. Land alienation, forced cultivation, taxation, and low wages.

Primary resistances forced Europeans to change their methods of ruling Africans. For example, in Tanganyika after the Maji Maji war the Germans made changes in their way of ruling including land ownership, taxation, whipping people in public etc. 




Colonial economy refers to the production and consumption patterns established in the colonies by the colonial masters with the-aim of serving colonial interests of maximizing profit through: the exploitation of cheap labour, raw materials and market in Africans. The colonial economies were established over a span of years, gradually killing the self sustaining African economies. The colonial economy comprised with three major sectors namely;
i. Colonial agriculture.
ii. Colonial labour force.
iii. Colonial industry and mining
The colonial economy had four major objectives that aimed at maximizing profit and minimizing the cost due to the demand of industrial sector in the metro pole.
The colonial economy aimed to ensure constant supply of raw materials for the imperialist Industries in the metro pole   
To ensure market for the surplus production of European goods
It also targeted to exploit cheap labours in Africa through providing low wages and forced labour.
It aimed also at getting areas for investment and settlement of European surplus population.
The colonial economy was designed to serve the needs of the metro pole. Africans did not benefit from colonial economy but it made them to be slaves on their own land and laid a syndrome of dependency, they consumed what they didn't produce and produce what they didn't consume.
1)    Appendage/ dependant economy. The African economy depended largely on the metro pole to determine what to produce; they produced what was required in Europe but not what they needed for their survival and consumed what was produced in Europe. Thus the economy was dependant upon and responsive to the imperialist interests in the metropole.
2)    Export and import oriented raw materials from Africa like minerals coffee cotton sisal, timber, and skins were exported in Europe for the industries in Europe while finished European goods were imported in Africa most of the commodities that were brought were luxurious anti consumer goods that could not bring any development in Africa such as chocolates, biscuits, cigarettes, beads, mirrors, etc.

3)    Mono-cultural. It also based on the production of a single crop in a given region as to specialize, that may lead to high productivity of the out put by making the African to acquire skills of a given crop e.g. Tanganyika produced sisal, Ivory Coast produced cocoa, Kenya produced coffee, Nigeria palm oil etc

4)    Existence of weak and small manufacturing sector. Primary production and processing industries were dominant in the colonial economies, with deliberate motive of  de- industrialization of Africa to turn the colonies a damping place for European manufactured goods, only import substitutions and processing industries were established to increase the quality of the raw materials by reducing the bulkiness, such processing industries that existed included coffee ginneries, oil refineries, cotton ginneries mining, just to improve the quality of the raw materials.
5)    Based on coercion fuse of force, application of coercive means was a common characteristic of colonial economy as one of the method to enable the colonialist to exploit African resources maximally acts like forced labour forced cropping corporal punishment forced taxation land alienation cattle confiscation became a common place during the establishment of colonial economy.
6)    Subordination of the local currency the currency that were used in the colonies were pegged directly to that of the metro pole e.g. the shilling in East Africa was the smallest domination of a pound in Britain. And also it ensured that all financial arrangements in the respective colonies operated to the advantage of the metropolitan economy
7)    Weak and scattered working class, most of the working class was cheap labourers based largely on racism and segregation, the Africans were at the bottom of the hierarchy paid less, with poor working conditions followed by the Asians, and on top were the Europeans with all privileges
8)    Pre domination of commercial sector and money economy that was facilitated with the banking sector insurance and, legitimate trade, in order to facilitate the exploitation of African resources by creating a links between the periphery and the metro pole.
. The nature of colonial economies can be portrayed and described in three categories:
·    It was exploitative to African
·    It was oppressive and
·    It was Coercive fuse of force.


There were three methods applied by the colonialist, to establish colonial economy. Colonial economy was established after colonial rule was in place. It was very necessary for the imperialist powers to establish colonial economy to achieve their objectives .The following were the methods applied;

Colonialists created some new things which did not exist in African traditional economy but were very vital in the establishment of colonial economy, such new things that were created included.

They created taxation in order to make Africans to provide and sell their cheap labour and produce raw materials, through working in the plantations of the colonialist as to get money to pay for colonial taxes, They introduced commodity production or cash crops to the African economy so as they ensure constant supply of raw materials for the metro pole industries.
They introduced land alienation as method to make African, landless and depend on the supply of cheap labour in the colonial plantation for their survival.

 Establishment of financial institutions like banking sector ,and insurance to facilitate their exploitation

They created and introduced money economy in Africa which replaced the traditional way of barter system, African needed money to pay taxes, buying European finished commodities, and paying bride price. The African were compelled to extensive use of money in their daily lives.   

Introduced large scale plantations that were owned by European settlers and
specializing in a single commodity of cash crop, this led to the abandonment of African traditional subsistence agriculture

Colonialists destroyed some institutions that were existing, that were not in favour of colonial objectives of maximizing profit and minimizing costs in colony.

They destroyed African hand crafts, artisans, arid technologies, such as cottage
industries like portly bark cloth making, iron melting, and salt extraction, among others with the deliberate move of keeping Africa de- industrialized and a damping place for European finished goods

They destroyed African long distance trade which largely based on barter system and they introduced the so called legitimate trade which based on imbalanced transactions in favour of the colonialists.

They destroyed all pre-capitalist mode of production and in place they brought
capitalism mode of production which was market oriented and exploitative in character

They destroyed African culture, traditions, norms and values and in place introduce their own culture through colonial education, Christian religion etc.

They destroyed the self sufficient African economy (subsistence economy)
which produced according to the need of the people i.e. production for immediate consumption

Some aspects were preserved which they saw necessary for exploiting the Africans through maximizing profits.

They preserved rudimentary tools in agriculture because they were labour intensive i.e. used more labour force than the capital as to utilize the free and cheap labour in the colonies e.g. hand hoe, axes, pangas were used in the production of agriculture

They preserved agriculture as the major economic activity since they wanted raw materials for their industries in Europe cash crops like cotton coffee sisal were introduced

They preserved and maintained family labour as source of cheap labour, since it was not paid


Since the colonies were meant to produce raw materials the main sector emphasized were mining and agriculture. The colonial agriculture was designed to save the colonial objectives of colonial needs to the imperialist countries .The production was largely for raw materials in form of cash crops e.g. Cotton, Coffee, Cocoa, Rubber, Palm Oil, etc

Colonial agriculture were in three forms namely
Settlers Agriculture

Peasant Agriculture

Plantation agriculture


This was operated by European Immigrants who came to settle in Africa .This type of agriculture was associated with existence of large scale farming owned by individual European farmers e.g. in Kenya, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Algeria, Angola, South Africa, Botswana etc.

The European farmers were brought in many colonies for tow major purposes: to solve the problem of European surplus population which had been brought by the industrial revolution that made European unemployed, thus to come and settle in Africa, secondly some Europeans were persuaded to come in Africa and produce cash crops such as cotton coffee tea and tobacco .

The production was for export: whatever they produced was exported as raw material to metro pole. What eve was produced by the settlers was to be exported to the metro pole, the African economies did not benefit from these large-scale plantation.

Establishment of large scale farming with the plantation occupying more than 100 acres of land. E.g. in Zimbabwe the European settlers owned 44,952,000 acres of the best land out of  the totaI4,900,000 land the 230, 000 settlers were able to establish large plantations

Growth of single crop/monoculture, intercropping was discouraged thus there was high specialization. Usually each company specialized in the production of a specific commodity e.g. in Liberia rubber plantations were established, in Kenya huge coffee, and tea plantations were established.

Huge capital input was injected in agriculture to develop infrastructure, to pay labourers, to construct squatters. The settlers got their capital through government assistance and bank loans at a very low interest rate. As for acquisition of land the state carried out the extensive land expropriation, this land was given to settlers and plantation owners at take away price. (Almost free price)

The settlers had strong links with the metro-pole and always exerted critical influence on the colonial state. Any policy taken with respect to colonial production had to take into account the interest of the settlers.

Use of massive unskilled labour in the production through the provision of African cheap labour. The colonial state ensure supply of massive unskilled African labour through passing laws that that requires the African to provide labour to the settlers like introduction of adult tax to every man or provision of labour in the white farm that is equivalent to the tax.

Private ownership of plantation by the European who came as settlers, and legitimizing African land through alienations, in Kenya, for example, the crown land Ordinance of 1915 gave the settlers 99 years lease for rural or agricultural land; the lease was later extended to 999 years, that the settlers would claim the land in perpetuity.

Practice of racism, where by the European settlers made Africans inferior, their work was to supply cheap labour on the plantations i.e. Africans was not allowed to establish commercial agriculture.

It was characterized with establishment of transport and communication network in the areas where settlers dominated e.g. roads, rail, banking sectors

Settlers were allowed to form political organization which they would use to defend their interest in colonial states.

It was characterized by the organization of labour on contract and dominance of migrate labourers who worked on the plantations seasonally.

The colonial state acquired land for them through land alienation by enacting land ordinance which legalized private ownership of land and legitimized the alienation of African land to white settlers of Africans, e.g. the law was passed in Kenya prohibiting African to procure land which was potentially preserved for white settlers in the high lands east of Lake Victoria.

They were exempted from direct taxes like poll tax, graduate tax, by the colonial states, although they were earning much more compared to the African, as away to motivate them did not also pay exercise duty and custom duties for the imported and exported goods.

They were ensured of constant supply of cheap labour from the Africans .This was done through passing legislation laws e.g. master and servants' native act of 1906 in Kenya which made African to work on European plantation.- The crown land act of 1915 in Kenya, the 1921 Kipande system law which increased the number of days from 90 to 180 for African to work on the colonial plantations in a year.

It offered loans, subsidies and credit to the settlers as away to encourage them to expand their agriculture since most of them had no enough capital to carry out extensive agriculture.

They were provided a monopoly role in the production of some agricultural output by prohibiting Africans to produce similar crops; for stance in Kenya high lands the production of tea coffee were preserved for only settlers

Infrastructure facilities and social services were extended in the areas where settlers lived, e.g. rail line, hospitals, schools, communication net work etc.

It offered the high prices to the settler agricultural output to motivate them to produce more crops.

Colonial states provided security to the settlers, against African uprising and resistance by providing them with personal guns, and security men (soldiers) to guard them and their farms     .

They were provided with monopoly role of distributing and marketing of some commodities from Europe.

They created labour reserves to help settlers to get immigrant labours that were paid very low wages and worked for long period, labour recruiting centres were established to ensure constant supply of cheap labour.

The colonial government allowed the settlers to form their political organization and trade unions that would defend and protect their rights, even they were to send representatives in the legislation council.

They were provided with compensation in case of loss or poor production due to poor climate or weather; this encouraged them to continue production in the colony because of such insurance.   



From the early period the British viewed their east African protectorate which was re named Kenya later alone in 1920 as potential colony for white settlers, the high lands of east of Lake Victoria offered favourable climate. From the mid of 1900 white settlers were brought from Britain and South Africa with determined effort to turn the high lands into a white mans home. The administrative capital was shifted inland to Nairobi to serve the European settlers. Some of the factors that favoured Kenya to become the hub of white settlers included:-

Conducive climatic condition of Kenya especially in the central high lands which had cool humidity climate which favoured the European to settle in Kenya without any problem

Fertility of the soils in Kenyan high lands which favoured large commercial agriculture whereby Europeans settlers were able to maximize the production of raw materials due to such factors the influx of settlers in Kenya was high

The traditional political system of Kenya also favoured the establishment of settlers agriculture .Kenya did not have strong political system that would resist land alienation from the Europeans unlike other parts of east Africa like Buganda which had dense population with highly centralized leadership of Kabaka

Availability of labour force i.e. cheap labour to -work in the plantations. In Kenya labour reserves were created that produced migrant labour, also through legislations like the master and servant act of 1906 which asked for African to sell their labour force for 90 days per year for 3 rupees as a wage per month.

Kenya had less tropical diseases like malaria due to the cool climate in the high lands of Kenya as compared to other areas like southern Tanganyika, Uganda and Burundi; this was a pushing factor for the settlers to come to Kenya for settlement.

The political set up of Kenya during colonialism. Kenya was a crown colony and not a protectorate like in Uganda and Tanganyika so the white settlers were ensured permanent stay in Kenya

Availability of enough land to establish large plantation of the settlers. This was because some areas in Kenya were sparsely populated that enabled the colonialist to acquire big chunk of land for large plantation un like in Uganda and some parts of Tanganyika

Absent of active resistance during the establishment of colonial rule, this ensured absence of violence and riots which could-destroy the plantations and tools

Topography of Kenya favoured the establishment of infrastructure to transportation of bulk raw materials e.g. the Mombasa to Kisumu railway which had just completed in 1895.


It made many African in Kenya who had occupied the land became squatters only allowed to stay on the land so long as the white new owner needed their labour, particularly badly affected were the Kikuyu in central high lands

Rise of labour class despised proletariats /working class who depended on selling their labour in white plantations as to earn a living despite the fact that it was a miserable earning

It led to physical and mental torture due to severe poor working conditions, daily abuses, harassment segregation, corporal punishment, racism by the white settlers

It led to the decline of African subsistence agriculture which was replaced by commercial agriculture that concentrated on the production of raw materials, which subsequently led to constant famine in Kenya

It led to the rise of nationalistic feelings among the Kenyans which led to the formation of national anti-colonial struggle like Mau- Mau, which detested the acts of the land alienation forced labour, wanted the white to leave their land and go back to Europe.

It brought impoverishment to the local Africans, who did not engage in any meaningful economic activity apart from depending on labour supply to the plantations where they earned a miserable wage that was not even enough for their monthly substance.

It led to the creation of trading centres where migrant labourers camped and creation peripheries

The settlers' agriculture led to intensive exploitation of African resources especially African cheap labour and land, e.g. Kipande system in Kenya whereby every man was supposed to work for 180 days in the plantations

The settlers' agriculture led the decline of African local industries and trade which brought technological stagnation in Africa because the Africans were not allowed to engage in other economic activities apart from supplying cheap labour.

It also led to the contradictions between the colonial government and the settlers who had conflicting interests. The colonial government was interested in profit maximization while the settlers were interested in retaining as much of the profit as possible in order to maintain high standard of living and reinvestment.

Another contradiction that cropped up us result of settlers agriculture were political. The settlers wanted to establish a system which the African remain labourers while the colonial state compromised by allowing the African to grow cash crops as well. On the same contradiction the settlers where not willing to grant independence for the Africans. This led to the delaying of independence to Kenya.   

They were huge agricultural plantations with a single production unit. They were either owned by the colonial government or absent capitalist in Europe who sent representatives or hired management to take over the plantations. This plantation agriculture was practiced in countries like Zaire, Gabon, Central African Republic, Tanganyika, Ivory Coast, among others.

Large scale plantations which covered a huge piece of land beyond 100 acres of land

In plantation agriculture management and owners were two separate entities i.e the owners were in Europe who only facilitated by providing capital whiles the managers who supervised plantations were in the colonies e.g. Akidas and Jumbes in Tanganyika.

Employments of large unskilled labour that were brought to work and supervise the plantation were paid low wages e.g. the migrant labourers.

It was characterized with monoculture i.e. specialized in single crop e.g. cotton, sisal, coffee etc

Investment of huge capital in the establishment of plantation because it involved in developing infrastructures, paid wages, and processing raw materials

Production was for raw materials like cotton palm oil sisal and mainly for export and market oriented

Plantations were scientifically managed and involved the application of heavy machines as to produce high production

The plantations were owned by capitalists in Europe who did not come to stay in the colony

It was also dominated by coercive means especially when it came on searching for labour, forced was applied and migrate labour where humiliated with poor payment and long working hours.

Plantations highly linked with the establishment of infrastructure especially roads to ensure smooth transportation of produce to the required places especially to the coast were they were to be exported in Europe, that's why in the colonial Tanganyika all roads and tracks were running down to the coast.

Most of the plantations were attended by migrant labour and conscript labourers that included forced labour and indentured labourers.

Presence of scattered fertile land in the colonies whereby settler's agriculture could not be effective e.g. in parts of Tanganyika some areas possessed good soils while, others not
Fear of tropical diseases due to high temperature like malaria, small pox, jiggers         which was not favouring the settlement for Europeans.
The existence of labour reserves which provided manual labourers especially the migrant labour which was highly preferred to work on the plantations because it was economically cheap and easily exploited because it was unskilled.
The desire of colonial government to collect taxes from the labourers. The migrate labourers also served as source of revenues for the colonial government, they would easily collect or deduct taxes from their meagre (low) wages, thus establishment of plantation to attract the migrate labourers
It was very profitable and served the interest of the colonial government of maximizing profit and minimizing the cost by providing low wages to the labourers and the taxing them.
The existence of strong political organization that would adopt active reaction to the establishment of colonialism in case of European settlers, then they encouraged plantation agriculture whereby there was no need of European to come and stay
Climatic conditions were it was not favouring the settlement of the Europeans, plantations were established
The colonial policy of divide and rule supported plantation agriculture .whereby some Africans who were made inferior to provide cheap labour while others were administrators for plantation.
Plantation agriculture was also established to act as a source of market for European goods especially in plantation trading centres where European finished goods were brought to be bought by labourers, e.g. bicycles blanket chocolate textile and alcohol
Also it depended on colonial master's policy e.g. Britain preferred settlers and peasant agriculture while Portugal and France preferred plantations and settler's agriculture.

Africans were exploited intensively through the provision cheap labour and paid low wages, and on top of that they worked for long working hours, this brought vicious poverty in Africa.

It led to the development of trading centres which were located near the plantations that acted as source of European finished goods

It led to unbalanced development in Africa whereby all social infrastructure concentrated where production took place leaving other places with nothing .e.g. in colonial Tanganyika all rail line road run perpendicular to the coast

It led to the occurrence of frequent famine in Africa because the African agriculture were abandoned which- led to shortage in the supply of food   

It led to the introduction of colonial cash crops in Africa in capitalist economy e.g. coffee, sisal, cotton, etc.

It promoted divide and rule in the colonial economy where by some tribes were preserved to supply cheap labour in the plantation while others were left for administration.

It led to land alienation was conducted as to acquire the land for establishing plantations this made many African to become landless and settle on squatters.

It created market for Europeans finished goods where by plantation labourers became source of market for manufactured goods in Europe, thus introduction of money economy.

This was the type of agriculture where small farmers were allowed to grow cash crops in their small plots alongside with their subsistence crops using the family labour and crude technology like hand hoe, axe, plough etc It was practiced in Uganda, Nigeria and in some parts of Tanganyika etc. In peasant agriculture the whole production was left in the hands of the peasants farmers after realizing that they were more efficiently producers in some regions than the European plantation owners who depended on forced labour.

It based on Small scale farming of the peasant on their small plots which led to low production it required no confiscated technology in implementing the agriculture

Application of rudimentary tools in production e.g. axes, and hand hoe, that were formerly owned in the pre colonial African societies

Individual ownership of land by the peasants, the land in. the peasant agriculture was individuality owned by the family led by the husband

Cultivation of both cash and food crops/double production by the peasant, the peasants were compelled to cultivate both his food and cash crop failing to do so was punishable by the colonial state apparatus.

Low output and low quality due to poor method of faming, peasants produced an average of five sacks seasonally, hence low income.

It largely depend on natural economy i.e. production largely depended on nature scientific methods like irrigation application modem machines were non existence, thus the production experienced constant natural disaster like drought, floods etc

Lack of social infrastructure in the areas of production, like railway roads communication system instead bicycles people and animals were used for transport, in poor roads

There was hardly any use of scientific methods in farming traditional ways were applied that largely depended on nature and the past experience.

It largely based on family labour as the major source of labour supply, the family members that was headed by the father comprised mother, children and near relatives.

Low quality production which fetched low prices because of lack of facilities to handle the produce e.g. drying system of coffee harvesting of cotton etc

In some colonial economies especially in tropical Africa small-scale peasant farmers still dominated cash crop production for example ground nuts remained the dominant cash crop in the northern Nigeria and Senegal. Coffee was developed in Cote d'lvoire (Ivory Coast), Angola Tanganyika, Uganda and Eastern Belgian Congo.
Uganda was a British colony which peasant type of agriculture as a method for intensive exploitation, to a big-extent the British were successful in establishing this type of Agriculture in Uganda

i.    The division of land into Milo land  which belong to the king and crown land which comprised rivers, swamps forest belong to the colonial- government such division of land could not allow any other type of Agriculture apart from peasant.

ii.    The Buganda agreement of 1900. This granted land to the Kabaka and his local chiefs who distributed it to the loyal subjects as tenants. In this agreement they agreed not to take any land for white settlement and introduced a system of private land tenure. This meant that much of the agricultural land of Bug and a became the privately-owned estate of the Baganda chiefs and peasantry as their tenants

iii.    Numerical figures of the population which was too high, whereby land alienation was impossible to get huge land for large plantations.

iv.    Fear for active resistance because of the existence of powerful centralized kingdom under the leadership of Kabaka Mutesa and his local chiefs.

v.    The climatic condition did not favor the Europeans for permanent settlement; there was high prevalence of tropical diseases like malaria and the like.

vi.    The traditional political structure of Buganda before colonialism .Ugandans people were very royal and subordinate to Kabaka who was their king they were not ready to accept any foreigner to rule beyond there king.

vii.    Existence of infertile soils especially in northern Uganda discouraged the establishment of plantation or settlers because of low productivity

viii.    Peasant type of agriculture was established in Uganda because of failure of other types of agriculture like plantation and settler

ix.    It was easy for administration and monitoring since supervision was done by peasant and local chiefs

x.    Profitability, it maximized exploitation since the price of raw materials were fixed by the colonialists and were very low ,they did not pay wages since there was the application of workers but based on family labor.

xi.    The relief of the land .Some areas especially in western Uganda it was mountainous and having swamps, it was very difficult and expensive to establish infrastructures in case of other type of Agriculture.

xii.    The cost factors. It was very cheap to use peasant agriculture, peasant provided their own packing, transport, tools, labor and pricing was done by colonial government. The cost incurred by the colonial government was to provide seeds and market

xiii.    The nature of the colony, Uganda as just a protectorate of Britain as per the 1894 agreement between the British government and the Buganda representatives unlike Kenya which was a crown colony.

xiv.    Crops that were established in Uganda required intense care and cannot easily be mixed with other type of crops like cotton, coffee, needed family care thus the establishment of Peasant agriculture.     

xv.    Another condition that favoured many natives had some experience and knowledge on relating the cultivation of the new cash crops, e.g. in Tanganyika the native of Kagera had the knowledge of growing coffee even before.

xvi.    The peasants were simply given orders to produce the required cash crops thus very easy to control the production e.g. during the inter war period many African families were just ordered to increase the out put of cash crops which they did


i.    Avoidance of land alienation as to enable Africans to posses land and practice agriculture

ii.    Introduction of taxation, various types of taxation were introduced to force the Africans to produce cash crops to pay taxes

iii.    The colonial government provided seeds and seedlings of cash crops like cotton, coffee, cocoa etc to the peasant to grow them

iv.    It used force to the peasant to grow cash crops e.g. destruction of food crops for any peasant who did not grow cash crops alongside his subsistence

v.    Importation of European industrial goods as a motivation and a force to make peasants grow more cash crops, e.g. foot wear clothes, bicycles etc

vi.    Through creating marketing boards and peasant cooperative union so as to market and advice the peasant concerning the production of crops

vii.    Through indirect, rule whereby the Europeans used local chiefs to instruct the Africans to produce cash crops

viii.    Through creation of social infrastructure in the areas where the peasants were located e.g. schools, roads, rail etc

ix.    Through providing technical skills especially to the progressive peasant who established large plantations.

i.    Regular occurrence of famine, because of over concentration on cash crops and ignoring food production the colonial government carried out forceful campaign to ensure that every peasant grows some cash crops on his small plot any body who violated the campaign was punished by destroying his substance food.

ii.    Accessibility of colonial education especially the peasant woo were progressive sent their children to colonial schools as a motivation factor to continue production

iii.    It led to the development of nationalistic ideas .i.e. struggle for independence through peasant cooperative union which discovered the exploitation of Europeans.

iv.    It led to classification among the peasants according to the capacity of there production i.e. progressive peasant these one produced more than 10 acres followed by middle class peasants and then poor peasants.

v.    It improved the workers welfare, after the establishment of some social infrastructures like medical care, schools, roads etc some peasant were able to send their sons and daughters to school which led to the rise of elites that led to the rise of African nationalism.

vi.    It led to the intensive exploitation of African resources through provision of low prices for their production that led to general underdevelopment. Marketing at the coast was done by the small number of large European companies. They ensure that prices given to the African peasant are kept at the lowest level as possible.

vii.    Importation of finished European industrial goods like cloth and metal goods were undermining Africa self-sustaining industries, thus promoting de-industrialization.

viii.    Because of intensive exploitation of agriculture land became exhausted and at times drought famine struck because of poor environment and soils, which claimed a lot of death of Africans.

ix.    It led to regional imbalance where by some regions which were producing cash crops got development like roads schools medical centre while in regions were cash crop production did not take place such development did not take place
The rivalry between the Asian and European communities over the issue of land and political representation led to the summoning of a conference on London by the colonial Secretary, the Duke of Devonshire in 1923. After wards a white paper statement called DEVONSHIRE WHITE PAPER OF 1923 of a government policy was issued settling government intentions and attitudes towards the three racial groups in Kenya.
Terms of Devonshire white paper 1923.
i.    It declared that Kenya was an African territory and the African interests were paramount above of immigrant races.
ii.    The Kenyan highlands were reserved for Europeans.
iii.    The Asians would not have equal representation with Europeans in the legislative council.
iv.    There was to be racial discrimination in the Residential Areas.
v.    There was no restriction on Asians immigrations into Kenya.
vi.    The settlers would have no further constitutional privileges
The significance of Devonshire white paper.
i.    The settlers were shocked because their hopes of gaining political control in Kenya and making Kenya Whiteman’s land were shattered.
ii.    The British agreed on the policy of trusteeship and governed Kenya on behalf of Kenyans till they are ready to take over, so road to independence was open.
iii.    The African representation in the legislative council was and this was the first step towards independence.
iv.    Reservation in Kenyan Highlands for Europeans disappointed Asians and caused unrest among Africans, This led to the formation of a group of freedom fighters called MAUMAU in the 1950’s.
v.    Free immigration of Asians brought in Kenya many traders and this prevented the country from having a white minority rule.
vi.    The Africans formed their first political organization to protect their interests e.g. Young Kavirondo Association dominated by Abaluya.
Discuss the factors that favoured Britain to established peasant agriculture in Uganda and Nigeria.
Discuss how the colonial agriculture in colonies contributed to the rise of African nationalism taking either Uganda or Nigeria as a case study.
Compare and contrast between peasant colonial agriculture with settlers' agriculture in the British colonies.
Why Britain was very reluctant to establish settlers’ agriculture in her West African   colonies?

It should be noted that one of the motive of Colonialism Was to exploit African cheap labour and most of colonial activities like the production of agriculture, mining processing industries, building infrastructures like, roads, rails and office work, required African cheap labour. It was very difficult and expensive to get labour from Europe, thus colonialists made conditions that could enable them to exploit African cheap labours to the maximum

·    The big percentage of African labour was unskilled or semiskilled labour and most of it did odd jobs in the colonial government

·    It was very cheap since they were paid low wages or no wages at all

·    They were poorly accommodated with poor working condition

·    They were intensively exploited whereby surplus production was meaning less to them since it was Europeans who benefited from it

·    They worked for long hours at the place of work with no any extra payment

·    High injustice was practiced on African labourers e.g. racism, intimidation, violence and they were not allowed to form workers movement or trade unions

COMMUNAL LABOR. This was another form of forced labour. This started right from the beginning of the colonial period and later was instituted as law. In Tanganyika for example it became a law under native authority Ordinance of 1926. Under this law African were forced to provide labour services for free of charge what was called public work. The services provided included building infrastructures necessary for colonial production, Bush clearing against tsetse flies. The peasants were suppose to use their own tools, anyone who did not turn for the work he was severely punished by paying fine of two hundred shillings or two months in jail.

FEUDAL RELATION LABOR. This type of labour was especially in the settlers' economy. Some Africans were to stay on the settlers’ farm in exchange for their labour services, although the African who stayed on those farms were allowed to use some land for their benefit were limited to a number of animals and land they could cultivate.

FORCED LABOR. This existed where plantation agriculture was practiced. Africans were forced to work on those plantations by the colonial states unwillingly; it was conscription backed by legislation was another method used to procure labour cheaply. It was introduced at the beginning of the colonial period, declined during the inter war period and reached the climax after the Second World War. E.g. Kipande system in Kenya and forced cropping in Tanganyika and in Portuguese colonies men aged 18-55 were required to provide free labour.

MIGRANT LABOR. This is whereby Africans migrated from one region to another region to look for employment especially in the areas where plantation and settlers were dominated, labour reserves were set up to ensure the supply of constant labourers. Migrant labour was resorted on as one of the most: effective ways of providing such labour. The labourer left his family at home producing their own means of substance, while he went to sell his labour-power. Being a single person he was hardly paid enough money for his own subsistence. The institution of migrant labour was very widely spread. In the 1950s for example, about one quarter of all able-bodied men in Tanganyika were employed in plantation and mines for example in northern Rhodesia, of 420,000 able-bodied men tax-payers in 1950s only 128,000 remained in their own villages in the same year many villages in the northern region of Nyasa land were totally without younger men. For the southern region of Kasai province in the Belgian Congo in the 1950s only 42 percent of men aged above 20years lived in the villages. Out of these only 30 percent lived in the village permanently while 70 percent lived as migrant labourers.

FAMILY LABOR. This was dominant in peasant type of agriculture whereby the members of the family were the basic unit of production e.g. Buganda, Karagwe and the Haya.

CONTRACT LABOR. The African were persuaded to sign a contract with the recruitment
agents. Breaking the contract was a criminal offence punishable by imprisonment, flogging,
or both. Was the labourers had been recruited it was the duty of the colonial state to ensure that they work for the period stipulated in the contact and with out damaging the property of the employer. Masters and servant Ordinance was passed through the colonies to ensure the protection of master's rights over their labourers in 1901 in Kenya, in 1922 in Uganda and in 1924 in Tanganyika. This was between the colonialist and the local chief who agreed among themselves to a certain terms, e.g. provide labour in the plantation and in build school for the community.

RESIDENT LABOR. This where the residents of the area became responsible to provide
labour in a given project, it was permanent in the area and included the residents of the area. Given the problem of migrant labour it was not reliable. The employee lacked guarantee to of an immediate replacement after the labourers have returned home and this could affect production adversely. Thus resident labour was developed to serve as an alternative.

This was the type of labour where the wrong doers in the society were supposed to provide hard labour in the colonial plantation as the part of their punishment.   
Imposition of taxes to the Africans. This would make them work so as to earn money to pay taxes. Anyone who failed to pay tax was imprisoned and given hard labour. Such punishments forced many African to provide cheap labour on the plantations of the colonialists,

Colonial state set up a labour department its role was to collect all data concerning the availability of both labour and labour market. Their other duties were to consult with labour department in other colonies so that common strategy could be worked out to ensure a constant supply of cheap and well organized labour.

Formation of labour recruiting center, example SILABU-(sisal labour bureau in Tanganyika) which was responsible to look for labourer’s to work in the plantations

Through passing legislations by the parliament that would force able-bodied men to work in plantations, e.g. 1920 Kipande system in Kenya which increased the number of days which everybody was supposed to work before he was given a Kipande identification card. The aim of the Kipande was to control the movement of labour and to ensure the constant supply of labour in the plantations:

Creation of infrastructures in some regions so as it can facilitate the labourers, e.g. labour quarters, schools, medical centers, residential houses, .etc acted as attractive forces for the migrates to come in the plantations to work. They also applied force to maintain the supply of labour; they used state apparatus like police and the colonial army.

Land alienation and cattle confiscation to make Africans fail to engage in any other business apart from providing cheap labour. African had largely relied to land and cattle for their survival.     .

Signing treaties between colonialists and local chiefs, to provide cheap labour for a given period of time in a certain area.

Provision of low wages kept Africans in plantation for long time because most of migrant labour wanted to go back home alter fulfilling their targets like buying blankets, bicycle etc and it made them to work for long period to earn enough money.

Practice racism where by African were categorized as third grade citizens their work was to supply cheap labour for the colonialists

Western education was introduced as to ensure supply of labour. That would work in different office as clerks, messengers secretaries and primary teachers.

    .     .
It was cheap because they were paid low wages as compared to other labourers this enabled the colonialists to maximize the profits.

They were disunited since very many came in various geographical locations and of different tribes so it was not easy for their unity and strike against the colonialist which may lead to destruction of plantations

Racial segregation and inferiority complex was easily instilled since it was the policy of the colonial government to make them believe that their inferior only good to supply labour

Most of the migrant labours were unskilled given the temporally nature of the work did not enable them to acquire education, thus easy to be exploited

Migrant labours acted as a source of market to the European finished goods which were introduced in plantation for labourers-s, e.g. blankets, bicycles, clothes, etc

It ensured the colonial government for the payment of taxes, rent for the houses, and water bills thus a source of revenue to the colonial government

It was very difficult for migrant labour to escape since they came as strangers from very far to the area hence could not escape easily.

They had high productivity since their time table was fixed by the colonialists from morning up to evening, did not come with their families; most of their time was engaged in agriculture thus high productivity

They were non antagonistic in nature since they were not affected by land alienation and cattle confiscation so they were easy and cheap to stay with out causing trouble to the colonialist that's why it was preferred

Migrate labour had no insurance and compensations of any kind .as a result the plantation owners exploited them with out considering their physical being and their human rights.

It should be noted also that migrant labourers were easily controlled. In the camps the labourers were lodged according to ethnic groupings; each under tribal overseers.

During colonialism the industrial sector was very small and weak the industries that were mainly founded were processing industries and extractive. One of the main objective of these industries was to reduce the bulkiness of the raw materials that' ware being exported to the metro pole. The colonialists had a deliberate move to make Africa de-industrialized so as to maintain the market of their finished goods, even the cottage industries that were in Africa they ensured that they die.
During colonialism industries existed were of three categories;

Traditional cottage industries. These were the industries that existed in Africa even before the coming of colonialism were known as cottage or hand crafts industries. Colonialists ensured that these industries were destroyed since they appeared to be a threat for their market. Examples of such industries were.

·    Bark cloth, making in Buganda

·    Basket making, in the Congo, Tanganyika

·    Portly, in the Congo

·    Mining technology in Zambia

·    Salt extraction, in Bunyoro

·    Textile making, in Chad; Nigeria etc

·    Iron melting in Bunyoro, Buganda,

Extraction industries:
These were based mainly on primary products e.g. mining and quarrying minerals like diamond, copper, and gold, so that they can maximize the production for raw materials for their industries. After the discovery of diamond in Kimberley in1867 and gold in Witwatersrand in 1886, the rush for prospecting mineral gained tremendous momentum, the colonization of Zimbabwe and Zambia, for example was conducted by the agents of Cecil Rhodes' British South African company. Rhodes ambition was to find another 'rand' (minerals) in central Africa, This was the most profitable sector in the colonial economy.

Colonial state assumed all rights over minerals within their territories. These were then leased for European-owned companies to exploit. The British thus took over the goldfields of Sante. The Bure goldfields of nearby Guinea were found to be of too poor a quality to attract trench companies and individual African companies were allowed to continue mining gold on Guinea on the small scale.

The richest part of tropical Africa for European mineral exploitation in this period Was the central African region of Katanga (Shaba) and the northern Rhodesian  “copper belt” the Union Muniere company had obtained exclusive control of copper-mining in Kantanga. They drew much of their initial labour from nearby Northern Rhodesia where BSA Company Agents were vigorously pressing forward demands for cash taxation.

Processing industries. These aimed at increasing the quality of raw materials e.g. cotton ginneries, coffee, processing industries, sisal processing industries, oil seed extracting, Breweries, cigarettes etc these were the major industrial sector that aimed to facilitate colonial objectives,

When colonial economy was established in the colonial state, legitimate trade was introduced capital was injected in the commercial sector by the metro pole which was popularly known as Finance capital it was poured in the colonial state to facilitate the circulation of industrial imports as well as the collection and marketing of raw materials.


Dominated by large trading and commercial European monopoly companies which had exclusive- monopoly of import-export trade between the colonies and the metropole.

Examples of these companies United African Company (UC.A) and the African and Eastern trading Corporation, (A,E.T.C) which operated in British West Africa. In French West Africa there were the Societe Commercial De I' Afrique Occident ale (S.C.O.A.) in east Africa there was the Smith-Mackenzie and Company Ltd.

It was dominated by export-import oriented finished European commodities were brought to seek market in Africa which included cloth and clothing, bicycles wine among others.

Facilitated by financial institutions, where substantial credit and support from banks and various financial institution established in the colonies. These were branches of big banks in the metro pole which included; standard bank of South Africa Ltd, Barclays Bank Financed Trade in East Africa by providing loans to the settlers.
Dominated with middle men who played a big role in distributing of imported industrial manufactured goods from Europe, collected and distributed and marketed the goods to the peasants and farmers. In West Africa most of the middlemen were of Lebanese and Syrian origins, while in East Africa were Arabs and Indians. These owned shops in towns and in most cases were itinerant (travelling from place to place) and retail traders scattered every where in the colony.

Africans were very few in the colonial commerce and trade since they were being suppressed by the colonial state prohibiting them to engage in commerce. In financial institution like banks and credit agencies, African were segregated were not allowed to be given loans and credits to carry out trade.

Financing mineral exploration like gold and diamond were given high priority by the financial institutions, because seemed more profitable to other trading items. It returned money very quickly with super normal profits for example the standard bank of South Africa Ltd made a fortune by financing the mining of gold and diamond, and through handling the loot of Cecil Rhodes and Derbeer. By 1895 the bank had spread to Botswana, Rhodesia, and Mozambique to finance similar projects.

This was a deliberate policy for the colonialist to keep Africans underdeveloped with no viable industrial sector so that African remain a dumping place of for finished goods from Europe and a source of raw materials for European goods

They suffocated all African traditional cottage industries by prohibiting Africans craftsmen to engage in production, e.g, Congo under king leopard of Belgium; any African caught engaged in manufacturing of traditional items was to be chopped one of his hand.

The colonialists avoided allocating huge capital of investment in Africa especially in the industrial sector so as they refrain from industrialization of Africa, the capital that was invested was in processing industries that aimed to improve the quality of the raw materials

African were segregated from acquiring loans and credits as to keep them aloof of development, it was only given to the Asians and European traders who invested in the processing industries

Most of the Africans who were potential to engage in industrial sector were taken to supply cheap labor in colonial plantations, leaving them with little time and space to engage in commerce and trade which would bring about industrialization.     .
The type of education that was supplied to Africans was too theoretical with little scientific practice that would not be enough to bring innovation of industrialization in a Massive damping of high quality European goods in Africa as to exploit the African market and to out compete the locally manufactured African commodities, that were of low quality and scarce in the market. Through creating brain wash to the Africans to believe in inferior complex where by many Africa started believing that commodities made by European nations are of high quality and the best as compared to those manufactured in Africa, thus this discouraged the industrialization of Africa.   

De-culturalization of Africa through colonial religion and education made Africa alienated from their society and depended on European culture in every thing dressing eating habits while abandoning the African culture, this made the African commodities to lose market for locally manufactured goods e.g. bark cloth in Buganda was associated with paganism thus many adopted European textile.     .


The colonial economy had nothing good to Africans if any it was accidental or coincidental or a good in despise, the primary objectives of the imperialists to come in Africa was to exploit African resources and solve the contradictions that had been brought by the industrial revolution of 18th century. But unfortunately despite all the evils that colonialism extended to the Africans but some historians argue that colonialism brought good to the continent and that the imperialists had the intention of developing Africa while quoting some infrastructures that they left like railway, building schools forgetting that what ever that was put in place by the colonialist was to facilitate colonial patterns that could enable the colonialists to exploit the innocent Africans to the maximum.

The following are some of the impact of colonial economy that brought to African nations.
De- industrialization of the Africa by suffocating all cottage industries that existed before colonialism and prepare Africa to become damping place for finished European goods

Decline of African trade that existed before the coming of colonialists that based on barter system, which helped the indigenous to acquire-what they could not produce e.g. long distance trade

Decline of African agriculture which was subsistence and helpful to the indigenous people to fight famine and starvation and instead colonial agriculture was introduced which base on the production of cash crop.

De-culturization of African culture like traditions custom religion values and norms and instead foreign culture were introduced like western education religion etc

Colonial economy brought permanent poverty in Africa since most of African was not allowed to engage in meaningful work apart from supplying cheap labour in their plantation

Destruction of the self sustaining economy of Africa and introduced money economy that aimed at exploiting Africans to the maximum trough taxation provision of low wages proving low prices for raw materials

Colonial economy exposed African resources like minerals cheap labour and land to intensive exploitation by the colonialist that could not bring any thing apart from permanent poverty in the continent

Colonial economy brought psychological and mental torture of many African who felled prey to colonial forced labour racism corporal etc such acts build permanent inferior complex of the Africans.

Colonial economy led to disunity among African depending on tribal lines and religion, it was colonial policy to divide and rule, by implementing it some tribes were favoured while others were ignored

Colonial economy brought a dependency syndrome in Africa by making the African to produce what they don't consume and consumed what they don't produce, that is the source of African under development

Colonial economy brought misery and suffering and general under development of African continent, famine hunger abuses were a common place in the colonial economy

Colonial economy promoted social stratification between the elites and the peasants who could not read or write, the elites collaborated with the colonialist in abide to exploit the peasants others become petty bourgeoisie that represented the interest of the colonialist.

Colonial economy led to exhaustion of African land because of the constant cash crop cultivation, that later has made African land to become infertile, with no good food cultivation hence constant famine and starvation.

The colonial economy led to the abolition of slave trade in Africa and brought forced labour in place where by African labour force was to work on the colonial plantation for free or for meagre (low/unsatisfactory) wages.

Colonial social services refer to the services that were provided purposely to accelerate colonial exploitation and improve the welfare of colonial civil servants during colonial period. Such services were provided to European governor's traders, and missionaries, but very scarcely to the Africans. Social services included the following;
Health/ medication
Housing and electricity
Entertainment and
Water supply.

Existence of settlers in the colony led to the establishment of some social services so as to cater for the white settlers, e.g. schools and medical facilities were introduced in such area as to motivate the settlers

Existence of production, some developments of social services were established near plantations so as to attract the labourers and facilitate the production e.g. work's quarters for accommodation and transport net-work like roads railways and etc

Presence of raw materials, in the areas of raw material, transport network like rail roads to facilitate the transportation of raw materials to the coast e.g. in colonial Tanganyika all railways roads were running down to the coast.

The existence of missionaries, in the areas where the missionaries had dominated, schools, medical centers, was established to help the missionaries and to convert the indigenous people by attracting them with such facilities especially medical and school.

The status of the colony the colony that was under trusteeship of U.N e.g. Tanganyika few social services were established while the mandatory colonies social services were many

Existence of economic activities in areas where mining activities were carried some
infrastructures were established so as to maximize the exploitation

Migrant labourers, in areas which they preserved as labour zone the infrastructures like rail were established to transport the migrate labourers to the areas of plantation e.g. the rail line from Kigoma to Tanga.

Existence of peasant agriculture, in areas were peasants were carrying out peasant type of agriculture like in Buganda, Kagera some social services like schools were set up as to encourage the peasants to carry out agriculture as to continues searching for school fees of their children    


Education refers to the transmission of values and customs from one generation to
another .It is a gradual process .Colonial education is the type of education established by colonialists with the aim of consolidating and accelerating the exploitation of Africans through ideological means. The colonial education system was designed in the way that it met the needs of colonialism.

Colonial education was meant to reproduce the colonial relations of production and disseminate the capitalist ideology to the colonized subjects. To that end they provided only limited skills, while emphasizing discipline and obedience as its policy. This was because it was meant to produce literate and loyal subjects. Most school during the colonial period was built either by Christian missionaries or colonial government. Missionary schools were meant to produce catechists. Clerks, interpreters, postmen and primary teachers.

The government schools fell into two categories:-
Native authority schools and the central government schools. At the beginning of colonial period the latter trained mainly sons and daughters of chiefs and headmen. It was from the 1920 that other children were admitted especially in the upper classes.

To train African man power who would collaborate or assist the-colonialists in their colonial activities. The development of colonial economy brought about the corresponding development ill the education system. The needs for more literate labourers to serve in the colonial social services that included schools offices and medical centres.

To divide Africans into classes; the elites who have managed to acquire colonial education and the illiterates did not acquire colonial education. To ensure the colonial policy of divide and rule.

Facilitate colonial production by installing skills of cash crop cultivation to the Africans
to know what to cultivate certain crops. These was especially to the native schools were
vocational and rural oriented emphasis was on manual labour, subjects taught; included
Literacy, farming and crafts.

To spread European culture and Christian religion by de-campaigning African culture and religion. This was especially by Christian missionary schools which acted as ideological
tools. For instance no Angels were painted in black.

To break the backbone of African informal education. That was largely connected to their
environment and economy of self sufficient and sustaining.

It aimed at instilling obedience, discipline, and time conscious to the Africans to break their resistance and to be obedient. The main ideology taught was mainly meekness and obedience to those that are in authority. So those African who followed such teaching became culturally uprooted and looked to Europe as a source for civilization.

To defeat Islam in the colonies, through segregating Muslims from acquiring colonial
education and forcing them to convert to Christianity in case they need the education, all
the education system and policies in the missionary schools were Christianized, that made it difficulty for African Muslims to join such schools


Un-even distribution, it only concentrated in areas where colonial production was high. In
labour reserves were no schools established. In colonial periods schools only were concentrated in cash crop producing regions so that most African in the bureaucracy came from certain region or ethnic group. Once started the system; became self-producing. After the Second World War in British colonies for example, financial responsibility for primary schools were given to the native authorities.

It was pyramidal oriented i.e. the higher you go the fewer the students and the lower you go the more the students. The number of students decreased as one went higher. At the bottom of the pyramid was elementary level, meant to serve the needs of the rural areas. The post elementary was meant to produce people to fit into administrative machinery of the colonial State.

It was racial oriented i.e. stigmatized according to colour .e.g. Europeans were going on high level schools. Asians middle level schools and Africans in poor facilitated schools. They were separated schools for each race and the syllabus differed accordingly. The European schools offered the best education. The second best was the schools for the Asians Arabs Syrians and Lebanese the African received the poorest education.

It was discipline oriented because it aimed at producing royal and obedient students to
the colonial government. At all levels discipline and respect for authority were emphasized. Those who received the education were supposed to obey without questioning so that they may not question the existence of colonialism.

It was elitist education aimed at alienating the learners from their societies e.g. foreign
culture was instilled in them, they stayed in urban centers instead of going to rural areas after graduating secondary schools.

It was discriminative in sex and social classes, girls and children of the lower class were
denied to acquire education; it was only boys and children of the chiefs that were given
education. As for the sex bias, this stemmed from the assumption on the part of the colonizers that the proper place for African women was in the kitchen. Thus she was to be given just enough education to be literate wife of a government officer. The figures for Tanganyika in 1956 clearly reveal the extent of this bias.

It was taught in foreign language and prohibited the African pupils to use local languages:
French, English and German were the dominants languages in the colonial schools. Such
application of foreign language in primary schools brought inferiority complex in African pupils confusion and brain wash 

The syllabus was foreign oriented and examination based i.e. whatever was taught was based in Europe nothing much concerned about Africa. Students would be taught about mountains in Europe, without ever studying at put the Africa ones learning was bookish in nature, with an emphasis on rote learning.    

It was too theoretical with little science practice that would have brought some innovations in other wards it produced job seekers instead of job creators. Minimum skills were provided because the colonizers were not meant to develop technologically, but to produce raw materials for export and provide a market for European manufactured goods,

It was formal and given to the few especially children of chiefs and kings and some of the working class

The syllabus based largely on Europe and nothing about Africa

It promoted inferiority complex among the Africans that even Africans were punished when spoken their local languages and everything evil has a black face and white is an angel

It produced job seekers and not job creators

On primary level concentration was put on agricultural education and school gardens were established so as to teach Africans how to cultivate cash crops

It created mental confusion to the Africans receivers because it was taught in foreign languages.

It was not meant to cultivate self-respect and confidence on the part of the Africans but rather to Create and people who worshipped the colonizers and trembled before them.

At higher level the emphasis was on white colour jobs discouraging manual labour. Some time the content was totally irrelevant to the African situation. One for example would study about mountains in Europe, without studying about those in Africa.

Learning was too bookish emphasizing much a cram work which was impossible for application in African situation.     .

It was education for under-development in Africa only designed to enable the colonizers to maximize their exploitation.

It was discriminatory in nature based on sex religion race and class.

It was not for free school fees were to be paid that's why very few acquired education, while the majority did not.

The colonial education created an elite class who collaborated with the colonialists and accelerated colonialism, sub - imperialists like Semei Kakunguru in Uganda who helped thy colonialists to spread colonialism in eastern Uganda were results of colonial education.

The Christian missionaries were given the monopoly to control education through Christianizing the African, it was through missionary schools that Christianity was able to be spread in the colonies For sure the colonial education only promoted submissive, mental confusion, and development of under development.

De-Africanisation, the colonial education introduced foreign culture like education and
religion and began to stigmatize the African values traditions and religion as paganism and sign of uncivilization    

Accelerated colonial exploitation the colonial education trained colonial collaborators that helped the colonialists in consolidating colonialism many African worked as clerks, office attendants, messengers' primary teachers etc

Promoted African under-development. The colonial education led to the abandonment of
African education that was substance and practical which based on environment and largely economy

It brought disunity among the African elites and non elites. The colonialists created this division as to exploit the peasants the elites were favoured given some facilities and were urban based, who acted as petty bourgeoisie.

It led to the segregation of Muslims from political and economic activities because the Muslims regarded missionary education as Christianity and feared their pupils to be converted into Christianity thus they ignored, the education and took their sons to madras [Quranic schools] this made the Muslims to be segregated in political activities

It led to de-colonization of Africa the colonial education led to the rise of elites who rose up against colonialism and began to demand for their independence, that's why at times we say that colonialism sowed a seed of its own destruction

It led to the decline of African pre colonial education which was free to all and was provided according to the environment and the need of the people, thus it solved daily needs of the people


Roads and railways were very few only covered short distances concentrated in the areas of productions and not much developed.

Construction was done through forced labour and community labour system of the Africans.

On the rail there were few passengers wagons most of them were for goods and few for passengers who were classified .i.e. 1st  class was for Europeans, 2nd  class was for business Men and the 3rd  class for the peasant.    

Most of the roads and rail were running perpendicular to the coast i.e. unbalanced development existed, in area were production did not take-place and no targeted labour no infrastructures were put e.g. southern Tanganyika

The feeder reads were built in the interior to feed main roads: that runs to the sea and most of the feeder roads were sub standard they were very muddy during the rain season.

There was no inter territorial linkage between one colony to another unless the colonial master was the same, e.g. Kenya, and Uganda, the Uganda Kenya rail was constructed from Mombasa to Kisumu


The colonial communication net work were not put in place to facilitate African internal trade or to make African visit their beloved ones neither, it was constructed to bring development in Africa,

The primary target of colonial communication system were to facilitate colonial production in the colonial state, that explains why some areas that had no economic importance to the colonialists - had no communication net work while others possessed, and why all trucks rail line in colonial Tanganyika were running perpendicular to the coast. There fore the patterns of colonial communication depended Oil the following.

Communication especially rail were established where production took place so as to transport-raw materials and finished goods to the interior .e.g. the Mpanda extension of rail in Tanganyika aimed to transport -the minerals that were at Mpanda discovered.

To transport migrant labourers from labour reserves to areas where plantation had been established. E.g. the rail line from Kigoma to Tanga aimed at transporting migrant labours from Kigoma to sisal plantations in Tanga.

They also aimed to transport colonial troops in areas of active resistance in the interior of Africa.

They also aimed to transport colonial agents e.g. missionaries traders and explorers who aimed at spreading colonialism and consolidating its gains, in areas that was dominated with missionaries like in southern Uganda communications were established.

To stimulate colonial production in the colonies e.g. easy accessibility to market and easy communication between colonial governors especially in capital cites and rural areas were ignored.

The existence of settlers, in areas were European settlers were dominated like in Kenya high lands communication net works were established to facilitate the settlers in transporting their produce     .

It also aimed to transport colonial governors and administers in their locations

The communication net work also aim at transport finished manufactured goods from the port to the interior searching for market; harbours and ports were developed to handle the bulk European goods:

Ports and harbours were constructed to handle the bulk raw materials that were being taken to the metro pole for export.

The telephone net work were installed only were colonial governors were located for easy internal communication with his administrators they were only in urban centre.


It was built not to help Africans or to develop nor to promote internal trade between Africans or for Africans to visit one another but to transport goods and raw materials.

The railways that were built were very small and brought regional imbalance because its construction depended to the existence of production

It increased exploitation to African cheap labour because they used force to get labour from the Africans    

In the place where the rail was constructed no road was constructed in order to minimize the costs.

The numbers of cars were very few and only belonged to the ruling class of the colonialist, it's only few Africans who owned bicycles.


It opened up the interior of Africa for exploitation of cheap labour, markets, and raw materials.

It increased the production of cash crops in the colonial states since transport network facilitated highly in the transportation

It created markets for colonial goods from Europe i.e. cars, bicycles, building materials were brought for sell

It led to the influx of more colonial agents like missionaries to penetrate into the interior of Africa for their activities 

It accelerated the activity of the colonial states through providing easy transportation of
colonial administrators and workers

It also ensured constant supply of cheap labours especially through encouraging migrant labour, using the transport net work to reach the plantation.

It played a big role in transportation of bulky raw materials from the interior to the harbours or ports. E.g. cotton, minerals, coffee etc

The colonial communication system enables the extraction of minerals and raw materials of the interior for example the Tanga, Moshi railway to transport the minerals in region.

The colonial state collected revenue from the communication system in the form of taxes from the goods and raw materials carried by communication system thus they got all the income generated from the systems.

The communication system brought the possibility of urbanization and the expansion of
commerce to the interior of Africa. In Tanganyika for example the town of  Tabora town
expanded because of the central rail line.

The communication system marked the beginning of the growth of money economy to the interior of the continent the African who lived near the infrastructure begun commodity production for sale.


Colonial healthy services refer to the colonial medical services that were established in the colonial state to serve colonial administrators missionaries and traders as their primary aim also some African were served by the colonial healthy service as to maintain the minimum healthy standard of African, to continue providing the highly needed labour force to the colonial productions.


The medical services were provided based on racial terms, European received the better
services and the Asians received the second best services while the Africans received the
worse and the poorest services,

Most of the medical services were located in urban areas because of many of the colonial administrators and the privileged lived in urban areas abandoning the rural areas were the majority of the African lived.

The medical services were based on social and economic classes the privileged received
the best treatment and the poor received the worse medical care,

The medical personnel comprised by European and Asians few well trained doctors
were Africans most of the African that worked in the healthy services were trained as dressers mid wife and nurses but not qualified doctors,
The medical services in the rural areas were curative not preventive the primary aim of
medical services in rural areas were to reduce diseases not to eliminate diseases,

The number of hospital bed for the Africans and other medical facilities were very few
as compared to the number of African patients for example in Ibadan Nigeria in 1930 there were thirty four patient beds for a population of half a million people..

Most of the medical centres that were located in villages were owned and controlled by Christian missionaries


Before the Second World War industries in Africa were only processing industries which aimed at reducing bulk weight of raw materials before shipped to metropolitan countries.
Examples of those industries included decoration industries, cotton ginneries, tobacco processing industries, and copper refineries.

After the Second World War there were some fundamental significant changes that took place in the colonial industrial sector so as to revamp the war ruined European economies. Among the changes included establishment of import substitution industries,


These were established as one of the major reform to revamp the economies of the Europe. Import Substitution industries refers to those industries that were established to replace the goods which were being imported from the metro pole i.e. production of consumer goods for petty bourgeoisie that were residing in urban cent petty bourgeoisie included the civil servants like primary teachers nurses clerks and business men, consumer goods produced included Colgate, soap ,cigarettes ,shoe polish, etc.

Most of the import substitution industries based on production of consumer goods like
biscuits, soap, cigarettes, alcohol etc.

They avoided the establishment of heavy industries i.e. manufacturing industries so as they do not make loses through huge heavy investment.

Production of various goods that could not bring any developmental impact on the economy of Africa, if any aimed at the need of colonialists and petty bourgeoisies who were in colonies.

It was labour intensive with no sophisticated technology in industries so as they can be able to exploit the mass cheap labour in the colonies.

Most of the owners were foreigners from Europe and aimed at maximizing profits and minimizing cost outside

It was unevenly distributed largely based in urban centres or major cities like                  Dar- es- salaam, Mombasa, Nairobi and Kampala etc

They also generated the hydro-electric power to supply energy in import substitution industries E.g in Kariba dam in Zimbabwe, Akasombo dam in Ghana, Owen falls in Uganda etc.

To reduce colonial expenditure on the import those were coming from metro pole to their colonies before the occurrence of the Second World War

It was a source of market for European goods, which lacked market because of
overproduction in Europe Africa became the solution for that problem after world war two
thus the establishment of import substitution industries in Africa. Because large scale urbanization i.e. urban centres were growing at a large scale thus needs
to care for them and to exploit them through introduction of new consumer commodities like beer sweats tooth pest etc.

Because of high demand of labour in urban centres that would only be exploited through the establishment of consumer goods, that will force them to sell their labour force as to be able to earn money to buy commodities like cigarettes beer etc.

They also established import substitution so as to reduce the overdependence of the
colonial state to the metro pole because the war gave them the lesson that over dependence of Europe can affect the colonies in case of any tremble in the metro pole.

It was also for maximizing profits and minimizing the cost to the colonial state, since the
major objectives of colonialism was to maximize profit so they vied it as one of the best


These were major instruments in establishment, and consolidating colonial rule and colonial economy, These were the super structure of colonialism you may call them the arms of colonialism, they applied all mechanism to ensure the continuality of colonialism in the colony including coercion violence intimidation deportation, corporal punishment, legislations, and jailing, as to establish and achieve the colonial objectives and goals.

Colonial state apparatus comprised three organs;
i. Military organ.
ii. Judicially. I Prison
iii. Police


This was the backbone of colonial rule in spreading colonialism; the colonial army was to serve colonial interests, not to serve the majority indigenous people. It applied brutality and cruelty of the highest order ever seen in the world, it tortured the people and it happened that it created a big gap between them with the civilians.    

Both the colonial army and the police were of mercenary character, trained only to use muscles as opposed to the brain. Education for soldiers was discouraged so much that to make them obedient to the colonial masters/ government.


Most of the recruits were Illiterates; it was believed that the more illiterate soldiers were
better because they can be able to serve the interest of their masters without questioning.

They depended on orders and commands from the top colonial military without questioning any thing thus they lacked professionalism

They always lived in foreign land, i.e. they were not supposed to work on their home land so as to be coercive and merciless while executing their orders from colonial top officers since most of their operations were dominated by violence e.g. the Sudanese soldiers were brought East Africa

They were selected from unproductive regions where cash crops, mining did not exist
especially in labour reserves like in northern Uganda so as they devote all their energies in
serving colonial army and should not affect colonial production

They survived on meagre (low) flow wages and sometimes without salaries so as they become more royal and obedient to the colonial bosses

They were separated from the public; they lived in barracks and military quarters as to keep them a way from civilian problems so that they can create a gap between the civilians and the military force

They applied force and coercive means to the population like land –alienation, collection of
taxes, and mobilization of labour and suppression of resistance.

To defend the colonial state from foreign threats enemies like uprising of African
against the colonialists from internal and external threats that would have threatened colonial interests

To punish the African leaders who would appear to be stubborn and non cooperative to the colonial state by deportation, jailing, killing etc

To alienate land from the indigenous people Africans, for the colonial plantations and white settlers.

To provide protection to the colonialist against the Africans who would have harmed the settlers and colonial missionaries.

To provide security and protection to the colonial agents like missionaries traders and explorers.

To suppress African up rising against colonial domination and to ensure the spread of colonial domination in region

Like the military organ the police also aimed to serve colonial interests of maintaining peace and order in the colonial state.

To maintain law and order in the colonial state by ensuring that laws are not broken.

To collect taxes on behalf of the colonial government and arrest the defaulters on the behalf of the colonialists

To ensure mobilization and constant supply of cheap labour to the colonial economy

They were the watch dogs of colonial administration. i.e. they were supposed to report and to take orders from the colonial administration

To provide security for colonial agents like escorting traders and missionaries in areas of


The colonial judicially system its major objective was to justify colonial acts by using
the judicial system, it was dominated by the white magistrates and judges.     .

To punish law breakers by jailing people who were against colonialism though the
judicial system.

To make laws and interpret them that under judicial supervision that helped colonialism
in her objectives

It was the source of cheap labour; prisoners were taken to supply cheap labour in various
colonial economic activities.



Discuss the sources from which History is reconstructed
Show the importance of studying history in the development of human being

  1. What are the limitations of oral tradition
  2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of linguistic as the source of history
  3. Identify various ways of getting the exact date for different events
  4. Show advantages and disadvantages of archeology and oral traditions as methods of reconstruction of history?
  5. Define historical sites and list down advantages and disadvantages of historical sites as the sources of historical information
  6. Draw a map of East Africa showing important historical sites found in the region and mention what are found in those areas.
  7. Draw a map of Southern Africa showing important historical sites of the stone ages.


  1. Summarize the process of human evolution in East Africa
  2. Give an account of the technological development of the early man in history
  3. Discuss the effects of iron technology to African societies
  4. Assess the major changes in man’s way of life during the late stone age in Africa
  5. In which ways were the Iron Age people different from the Stone Age people?
  6. Explain how the discovery of iron led to changes in the lives of most people in East Africa
  7. How did the development of iron technology in East Africa help bring economic and social changes?
  8. What were the effects of the discovery of iron technology in African societies?
  11. Outline the effects of long distance trade to the people of East Africa
  12. Trace the development of industrial sector in pre-colonial African societies
  13. Describe the factors for the rise or growth of the Trans-Saharan trade
  14. Discuss the impact or effect of the Trans-Saharan trade
  15. Discuss the reasons for the decline of Trans-Saharan trade
  16. Describe the Trans-Saharan trade routes and how the trade affected life in the Western Sudan
  17. Critically examine the social and economic effects of long distance trade on West Africa
  18. What factors gave rise to the Trans-Saharan trade?
  19. Show the importance of long distance trade in the development of centralized states in Western Tanzania during the 19th C
  20. What was the contribution of long distance trade to the formation of states in the interior of Tanganyika in the 19th C?
  21. Draw a map of West Africa showing the routes of Trans-Saharan trade
  22. Draw a map of East Africa showing the routes of Long –distance trade.


  1. Show how environment and economic activities influenced difference in the evolution of political organization in pre-colonial Tanzania
  2. Give reasons why most pastoral societies evolved age-set political organizations in East Africa?
  3. Account for the rise of state organization in pre-colonial Africa
  4. How did climate and economy determine the level and type of political organizations in pre-colonial East Africa?
  5. Examine the factors which led to the establishment of state systems in East Africa?
  6. Examine the factors which led to the establishment of state systems in East Africa
  7. Outline the characteristics of the decentralized societies in Africa


  1. Account for the outbreak of Mfecane war and its effects
  2. Why most of the East African societies were defeated during the Ngoni invasion?
  3. What were the effects of Ngoni migrations into East Africa in the 19th Century?
  4. Outline the characteristics of Centralized political systems
  5. Explain the main factors for the rise and decline of Ghana Empire
  6. Outline the factors for the rise and decline of the Mali empire
  7. Examine the factors for the rise and collapse of Songhai empire
  8. What were the factors for the rise and decline of the KANEM-BORNU?
  9. What were the factors for the rise of the kingdom of Benin?
  10. Why did the kingdom of Benin last long?
  11. Examine the factors for the rise or survival of the kingdom of Dahomey
  12. What enabled the Ngoni to invade a wide region of East Africa?
  13. What were the consequences of the Ngoni migration into East Africa in the 19th Century?
  14. Discuss the factors for rise and consolidation of the Buganda Kingdom
  15. Discuss the rise and fall of the Oyo empire in Yoruba land
  16. What were the main factors for the rise of the Kimbu empire in the second half of the 19th C?
  17. Outline the factors for the rise of the Kingdom of Karagwe
  18. Assess the contribution of gold in the rise and consolidation for the Ghana Empire in West Africa
  19. Discuss the main factors for the rise of Mali Empire in Western Sudan
  20. Discuss the factors which led to the rise and fall of different states in the Western Sudan up to the 15th Century A.D
  21. Account the rise and downfall of the Asante Empire OR  Discuss the factors for the rise and fall of Asante empire
  22. Using specific examples, explain how the expansion of the Ngoni people during the 19th C affected  the people of East and Central Africa
  23. With relevant examples show the reasons for the emergence and downfall of the Kongo- Zambezian states in Central Africa
  24. Trace the factors which contributed to the rise, expansion and fall of the empire of Mali between 13th and 15th Centuries
  25. Show the role played by the Islam in the formation and transformation of states in pre-colonial West Africa
  26. Explain the social and economic factors which  gave rise to the interactions among the people of Africa
  27. Explain the impact of the economic interactions among the people of Africa
  28. Analyse the factors that contributed to emergence of strong centralized feudal states in the interactustrine region.
  29. “While some African societies grew into powerful states in the 19th century others stagnated or disintegrated” account for this variation.
  30. Show how the religious wars or jihads contributed to the formation of centralized states in West Africa during the 19th Century.
  31. “The causes of the Fulani Jihads of 19th Century were economic and political rather than religious”. Discuss
  32. Show how Mfecane was a factor for state formation in East and Central Africa.

                       IN PRE-COLONIAL AFRICA

  1. Show how environment and economic activities influence difference in the evolution of political organization in pre-colonial East Africa.
  2. Describe the characteristics of the pre-colonial modes of production by 1850s
  3. Compare and contrast between communalism and socialism
  4. How does primitive communalism differ from feudalism?
  5. Clearly explain the major differences and similarities between capitalist and feudalism systems
  6. Identify the differences between capitalism and socialism
  7. Outline the aspects and importance of African Culture
  8. Mention the characteristics of the pre-colonial or tradition culture
  9. Examine the impact of the colonial culture on the African culture
  10. Identify and explain three of the main forms of feudal production relations in East Africa in the 19th Century
  11. With concrete examples discuss the features of the pre-capitalist mode of production in African societies.
  12. “The basic political organizations in the pre-colonial Africa were related to the environment of which the system evolved” with concrete example discuss this system.


  1. What factors contributed to the decline of coastal city states between the 16th and 18th Centuries?
  2. What were the effects of early commercial contact between East Africa, Middle East and Far East Africa?
  3. What were the major effects of 19th Century caravan trade in East Africa?
  4. How Seyyid Said’s Zanzibar did base commercial empire affect East Africa? OR How did the Oman Sultanate stimulated the expansion of trade in East Africa?
  5. Why did Seyyid Said move his capital from Oman to Zanzibar in 1840s?
  6. Explain the aims and results of the Portuguese invasion of East Africa in the 16th and17th Centuries.
  7. Give reasons why the Portuguese administration failed in East Africa?
  8. Trace the steps taken towards the abolition of slave trade and discuss the main or reasons which led to the abolition of slave trade in East Africa.
  9. Why did the East Africa slave trade flourish after the abolition of West African Trans-Atlantic slave trade? OR Why did the abolition of East Africa slave trade took a decade?
  10. Explain the effects of the abolition of slave trade in East Africa
  11. Describe the growth and operation of the Atlantic slave trade
  12. What do you understand by the term ‘Legitimate trade’? Discuss the view that type of trade led to European colonization of West Africa
  13. What were the effects of the Atlantic slave trade on West Africa?
  14. Examine the impact of Portuguese intrusion in East Africa in the 16th C
  15. Show how the Portuguese disrupted the development of trade in the Indian Ocean up to the 17th century
  16. What were the effects of the Triangular trade in West Africa?
  17. Who benefited from the Triangular Atlantic slave trade and how?
  18. Explain the aims and results of the Portuguese invasion of East Africa in the 16th and 17th Centuries
  19. How was slave trade organized in East Africa?
  20. Explain the consequences of the development of the Triangular trade on Africa
  21. Why did Europeans take measures to abolish slave trade in the 19th C?
  22. Explain the effects of the West African slave trade
  23. What were the notable effects of the abolition of slave trade in East Africa?
  24. Account for the rapid expansion of slave trade in East Africa during the 19th Century
  25. Describe the origin, rise and effects of the Triangular trade to the West African societies
  26. Show how legitimate trade was illegitimate?
  27. Why legitimate trade was established?
  28. “Africa has been a continent of trade ever since” Discuss
  29. The underdevelopment of Africa began with the early contact. Discuss
  30. Discuss the impact of long distance trade to the political and economic organization of the pre-colonial African society.
  31. With concrete examples discuss how the so-called legitimate trade served the interest of colonial economy.


  1. Explain the part played by the missionaries, traders and explorers in the colonization process of East Africa
  2. Examine the factors which favoured the spread of Christianity in East Africa
  3. Outline the problems facing missionary activities in East Africa
  4. Describe the rise or development of capitalism(the rise of imperialism)
  5. How did the discovery of mineral affect the South Africa economy?
  6. What were the main causes and results of the Great Trek (Boer Trek)in South Africa?
  7. Give reasons for the Anglo-Boer war of 1899-1902?
  8. What were the causes of the Great trek in South Africa? OR What were the causes of Boer exodus in South Africa?
  9. Discuss the causes of the Boer trek and its consequences on the people of South Africa


  1. Examine the factors which favoured the spread of
  2. Explain the part played by the missionaries, traders and explorers in the colonization process of East Africa
  3. Christianity in East Africa
  4. Outline the problems facing missionary activities in East Africa
  5. Discuss about the rise and role of trading or chartered companies in the establishment of colonial rule in Africa
  6. Explain the reasons for the failure of the chartered companies in Africa
  7. Give an account of the European scramble for and partition of East Africa
  8. What were the terms and significance of the Berlin Conference of 1884/85?
  9. Examine the reasons and terms of the Anglo-German agreements of 1886 and 1890
  10. Discuss types or various methods of African reaction and responses to the imposition of imposition of colonial rule in East Africa
  11. What were the causes of the Nandi resistances in Kenya?
  12. Outline the causes and effects of Maji-Maji war of 1905-1907
  13. Outline the causes and effects of the Nama and Herero uprising of 1904-1907
  14. Give the reasons for Samore Toure’s long resistance
  15. Explain why Samore Toure was defeated
  16. Discuss the reasons for Asante-Fante conflict of the 19th Century
  17. What were the causes and effects of the Mashona –Ndebele uprising (Chimurenga war) in Zimbambwe of 1896-1897?
  18. Outline for the reasons for the success of the Ethiopians during the Italian invasion
  19. Discuss the causes and impact of the Jihad movements in West Africa
  20. Why did the African societies stage strong resistances against the imposition of colonial rule?
  21. Why most of the African resistances failed?
  22. Why did Company rule in East Africa fail?
  23. Account for the Ndebele –British war of 1893?
  24. Show how the Ndebele and Shona reacted against the imposition of colonialism in Zimbabwe
  25. Why the Berlin conference of 1884-85 held and what was were the decisions reached?
  26. Account for the special significant role of Kinjekitile in the History of Tanzania
  27. Why were European and American trading companies interested in the East Africa in the 19th C?
  28. Relate the opening of the Suez Canal with the Scramble and Partition for colonies in Eastern Africa
  29. Why was the position of Egypt of special importance of scramble and partition of Africa?
  30. What were the effects of the activities of the European Missionaries in East Africa since the second half of the 19th Century?
  31. Mention and discuss any three of the motives of the imperialism in South Africa in the second part of the 19th Century
  32. Why did German manage to colonize Tanganyika inspite of strong resistances from the people?
  33. What were the main effects of Majimaji uprising in Tanganyika?
  34. Why did the Shona and Ndebele take up arms against the British in 1896- 1897?
  35. Explain the part played by missionaries in the colonization of Uganda by Britain
  36. “African resistances against the imposition of colonial rule failed due to African’s technological backwardness” Discuss
  37. What were the causes and effects of the 1884/85 Berlin Conference?
  38. “ Chief Lobengula’s close relationship with John Moffat created colonialism in Zimbabwe in the late 19th Century” Explain this statement.
  39. “ The East African resistances against the imposition of colonial rule failed because of technological backwardness” Analyse this statement
  40. What methods did the Germans use in the conquest and occupation of Tanganyika?
  41. Why did European nations show an increasing interest in East Africa in the 19thC?
  42. What is the importance of Maji maji resistance in the history of Tanzania?
  43. Give an outline of the steps taken towards the colonization of Southern Rhodesia
  44. Why was the position of Egypt of special importance of imperialist power during the scramble and partition of Africa?
  45. Discuss the causes of religious conflicts in Buganda during the last quarter of the 19th C.
  46. How did the Missionaries, Explorers and traders contribute to the scramble and partition of Africa by Western European?
  47. What were the decisions reached in the Anglo- German agreement of 1890?
  48. Why did Egypt attract imperialist powers during the scramble for and partition of Africa?
  49. “ While some societies resisted the imposition of the colonial rule in Africa, others appeared to collaborate” Discuss this context giving concrete   
  50.            examples from East Africa
  51. What brought about the Chimurenga war in Southern Rhodesia in 1896-1897?
  52. The Maji Maji war of 1905- 1907 in Tanganyika remains a symbol of the African struggle against colonial rule. Justify
  53. With concrete examples show why the conflict between Africans and the Whites during the colonial period was inevitable
  54. Through their activities the missionaries became forerunners of colonialism. Justify this statement
  55. Discuss the factors that led to the partition of Africa among the imperialist powers
  56. Why Christian missionaries were referred to as colonial agents?
  57. Account for the timing of the Berlin conference in 1884-1885
  58. Discuss the role of Germany in the colonization process of Africa
  59. What were the impacts of the influx of the colonial agents in the colonies of Africa?
  60. Discuss how the missionaries, traders and explorers facilitated in the establishment and consolidation of colonial rule in Africa.
  61. “The colonization of Africa was due to industrial revolution in Europe” Discuss this statement.
  62. “African resistances against colonial penetration were not homogeneous” Account for this statement.
  63. “Some societies actively resisted while others corroborated against colonialism” why such variation occurred?


  1. Describe the policies or theories used by the colonialists in establishing administrative system in Africa
  2. Why did the British apply indirect rule in colonial Tanganyika?
  3. With examples from East Africa, to what extent was the British colonial system of indirect rule indirect?
  4. What were the short comings of indirect rule in British colonies in East Africa?
  5. Compare and contrast the German direct rule system with the British indirect rule system as applied in East Africa
  6. Describe the nature structure and features of the French assimilation policy.
  7. Why did French applied Assimilation Policy in administering her West Africa colonies
  8. Discuss the benefits and problems of the Assimilation policy.
  9. Discuss the impact or effects of French Administrative style.
  10. Compare and contrast between the Assimilation Policy and the British Indirect rule.
  11. Describe the policy of Association as applied by the French in administering her West Africa colonies.
  12. Examine the administrative policy adopted by the Portuguese in ruling their colonies.
  13. Outline the problems faced by the colonialist during the establishment of the colonial administrative systems in Africa.
  14. Examine the reasons and function of the colonial military forces in Tanganyika.
  15. Which tactics and methods did the imperialist powers used in establishing colonialism in East Africa?
  16. What were the shortcomings of the indirect rule in British colonies in East Africa?
  17. Examine the reasons for the changing nature of the French colonial policy of assimilation in controlling African colonies
  18. With particular reference to Nigeria, examine the long term effects of the system of indirect rule
  19. What do you understand by the French policy of assimilation and association?
  20. What do you understand by the policy of indirect rule which was applied by the British colonial government in East Africa? How was it applied?
  21. Explain the policy adopted by the Portuguese colonialists in colonies before the launching of armed struggle by the Africans in the 1960s
  22. Taking Nigeria and Uganda as examples discuss the immediate and long term effects of the British system of indirect rule
  23. With example from East Africa to what extent was the British colonial system of indirect rule indirect?
  24. What were the administrative techniques applied by the colonialists to establish colonial rule and what other factors played similar role?
  25. Discuss the role of the colonial education in establishing and consolidating of colonial rule in African colonies.
  26. Explain why French assimilation policy failed in her colonies of West Africa?


  1. What are the characteristics of the colonial Economy?
  2. Why did the colonialist introduce colonial Economy in E. Africa?
  3. Discuss the types or patterns of the colonial Economy established in East Africa.
  4. Describe the different forms of Agricultural system in the three East Africa countries during the colonial period. Show the reason for their differences.
  5. Why did Agricultural production in the colonies remain technologically backward?
  6. Why European plantation owners did preferred migrant labourers?
  7. Identify the mechanism through which cheap labour was obtained in Kenya or how did colonial government ensure constant supply of labour in 
  8.              their colonies in East Africa?
  9. How did the colonial state establish and consolidate settler Agriculture in Kenya?
  10. Briefly analyze the pattern of colonial infrastructure railways roads and ports in Mainland Tanzania. Showing how it facilitated the exploitation of  the country.
  11. Outline the purpose, difficulties and result of constructing Kenya -Uganda Railway.
  12. Show the impact of the colonial Economy on the Africa societies particularly in East Africa.
  13. What do you know about Buganda Agreement of 1900? What important effects had the agreement caused in the development of Uganda?
  14. Show the terms and significance of the Devonshire White Paper in the development of Kenya.
  15. Discuss the colonial labour system taxation in Central Africa
  16. How did the colonial state establish and consolidate settler agriculture in Kenya?
  17. Why and how were peasant marketing cooperatives established from the 1930s in East Africa Colonies?
  18. Explain why Africans societies and the white settlers were engaged in continuous clashes from the 17th C  to 19th C in South Africa
  19. What was the significance of the Buganda Agreement in the history of colonialism in Uganda?
  20. How did the discovery of precious gems in South Africa bring about drastic changes which transformed South Africa from mercantile system of the 
  21.              17th Century to industrial capitalism?
  22. Why was settler economy a success in Kenya but a failure in Uganda?
  23. How did colonial economy differ from the pre-colonial economy?
  24. Show the economic and social effects to Kenya of the construction of Uganda Railway line
  25. What were the effects of the mineral revolution to South Africa?
  26. Discuss the mechanism used by the colonialists to break up the natural (indigenous) economy of the East African people
  27. Discuss the effects of the discovery and mining of diamonds and gold in South Africa
  28. Why did the colonial powers oppose the development if manufacturing industries in the colonies?
  29. Discuss the impact of Mineral revolution in South Africa
  30. Using concrete examples from any East African country show how the pattern of the physical and social infrastructures were largely determined by
  31.             the system of the colonial economy
  32. How did the colonial government ensure constant supply of labour in their colonies in East Africa?
  33. Show the main characteristics of the colonial economy
  34. How did the colonial state protect settler interests in Kenya?
  35. Describe the pattern of the economy established by Britain in her West African colonies
  36. Examine the effects of migrant labour on African societies during colonial domination
  37. Describe briefly the common characteristics of settler and plantation agriculture in colonial Africa
  38. Show the relationship between the discovery of minerals and the growth of imperialism in South Africa
  39. “Colonialism and imperialism never intended to develop Africa but practically there are some development on the ground” how would you reconcile such conflicting statement?
  40. Explain why colonialism in Africa did not transform Africa economies into capitalism like that of Europe.
  41. “We consumed what we don’t produce and produced what we don’t consume” in relation to the colonial economy justify this statement.
  42. How did colonial government encourage settlers’ agriculture in the colonial states?
  43. Discuss the nature of settlers’ agriculture in either Zimbabwe or Kenya.
  44. How did the colonial state encourage white settlers in the colonial state?
  45. Discuss the components of colonial economy and strategies applied to establish colonial economy in Africa.
  46. Discuss the motives and impacts that surrounded the establishment of colonial agriculture in the colonies.
  47. How the colonial apparatus did maintain and consolidate colonial plantation agriculture?
  48. Why colonial government established plantation agriculture in some areas and settlers in other areas?
  49. Compare and contrast between colonial agriculture in Tanganyika with that of Kenya.
  50. Discuss the factors that favoured Britain to establish peasant agriculture in Uganda and Nigeria.
  51. Discuss how the colonial agriculture in colonies contributed to the rise of African nationalism taking either Uganda, Kenya or Tanganyika
  52. Why Britain was very reluctant to establish settlers’ agriculture in her West African colonies?
  53. Discuss the features and forms of African labourers during colonialism.
  54. Discuss how the colonial economy maintained the de-industrialization of African economies during the establishment and maintenance of colonialism.
  55. Historically most post independent African economies lack viable industrial sector. With relevant examples explain the root cause of this.
  56. The source of African problems in the post independent Africa has got their roots from the colonial economy. Substantiate
  57. With relevant examples discuss how the colonial economy brought poverty and suffering among the Africans
  58. Assess the evils of the colonial economy on the Africans, during the period of colonialism.


  1. Show the main features, characteristics and effects of colonial Education in East Africa.
  2. Analyze the functions of infrastructures which were established by colonialists in Africa
  3. Briefly analyze the pattern of colonial infrastructure (Railway, Roads and Ports) in Mainland Tanzania show how it facilitated the exploitation of the Country.
  4. How effective was the Uganda Railway in the colonization of Kenya and Uganda?
  5. Identify the characteristics of pre-colonial education
  6. Account for the aims and effects of colonial education
  7. Discuss the role and characteristics of the pre-colonial African education
  8. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the pre-colonial African education
  9. Compare and contrast between the pre-colonial African education and the colonial education.
  10. In colonial Tanganyika all the roads, track and rail were running perpendicular to the coast. Why?
  11. Discuss the role of colonial education in maintaining and establishing of colonial rule in the colonies
  12. Show the role played by the colonial social services in consolidating colonialism in Africa.
  13. With relevant examples show the demerits of the colonial education in relation to the pre-colonial education in Africa
  14. What were the content and methodology of the colonial education in Africa?
  15. Discuss the pattern and role of communication system in consolidating colonialism in mainland Tanganyika
  16. Give the full account for the imbalance development in the colonial Tanganyika by pointing out specific regions.
  17. Discuss the role of colonial state apparatus in establishing and consolidating colonialism
  18. “The colonial state was the most violent”. Discuss
  19. What were the features of the colonial bureaucracy?
  20. Discuss the forms of classes that existed during colonialism and why?
  21. Show how colonial policy of racism facilitated the consolidation of colonial motives in colonial Africa.
  22. Discuss the nature and characteristics of colonial bureaucracy.



  1. Discuss the causes and effects of the First World War on East Africa.
  2. What were the causes and effects of the Second World War on East Africa?
  3. How the First World War did affected Europe Nations?
  4. Explain the effects of the World War 11 on European counties.
  5. Identify the causes of the Great Economic Depression of 1929/1933.
  6. What were the effects of the Great Economic Depression to East Africa?
  7. Show how Europe and USA were affected by the Great Economic depression of the 1930s
  8. Mention the measures taken against the effect of the Great Economic Depression
  9. Account for the rise of U.S.A. as the leading imperialist power after the Second World War.
  10. How did the Great depression affect East Africa and what were solutions to the problems?
  11. Explain the main causes of the first World War
  12. Discuss the effects of the two World wars on the East African countries
  13. How did the Great Depression affect East Africa and what were solutions to the problem?


  1. Outline the internal and external factors which gave rise to nationalism in East Africa
  2. Explain the roles of the social and welfare association, independent churches and peasant cooperatives in the rise of nationalism in Africa.
  3. Outline the factors led to the formation of peasant cooperative organizations
  4. What are the current problems of co-operative unions in East Africa?
  5. Examine the factors fir the rise of nationalism in East Africa after the second world war
  6. Discuss the objectives and problems which faced TANU during the struggle independence in Tanganyika
  7. Why Tanganyika archived independence earlier than the other East Africa states?
  8. Describe the factors which led the early independence of Ghana in 1957
  9. Examine the origin stages and importance of Pan- Africanism
  10. Discuss the causes of the Mau Mau war and show its contribution to the struggle for national independence in Kenya
  11. Describe measures taken by the British when they declared the state of emergency in Kenya
  12. Explain the causes and effects of the 1964 Zanzibar Revolution
  13. Why was it necessary for Zimbabwe to use armed struggle in order to archive national independence?
  14. Explain the factors which helped the people of Zimbabwe to attain their political independence
  15. Discuss the reasons for independence struggle in the Portuguese colonies.
  16. Why in most of the Portuguese colonies [Mozambique and Angola ] political independence was obtained through gun –point or bloodshed?
  17. Explain the factors which made it difficult the struggle for majority Rule in South Africa.
  18. Outline the factors which supported attainment of independence in Namibia.
  19. Why has it taken so long for Namibia to achieve independence?
  20. Why U.S.A. put pressure on the colonial powers to grant independence to their colonies?
  21. Outline the highlight of the White paper No .10 as the Kenyan economic development strategy   after independence.
  22. What contributed to the consolidation of the nationalist struggles in East Africa?
  23. Why was it necessary for Mozambique and Angola to use armed struggle as the means of achieving independence?
  24. The independence of Tanganyika in 1961 was an inevitable development given the nature of colonial state and the global situation that existed after 1954.  How far    
  25.               this true? (Substantiate)
  26. Show the extent to which the people of Zanzibar have benefited from the 1964 Zanzibar Revolution
  27. How did the system of the colonial economy in Kenya influence the nature and character of the struggle for independence in that country?
  28. What were the causes and effects of the Mau Mau movement in Kenya?
  29. Explain the factors which enabled Tanganyika to get independence before Kenya and Uganda
  30. Why was armed struggle necessary in order to attain independence in Zanzibar?
  31. Explain the roles of Welfare Associations, Religious Movements and Cooperative societies in the struggle for independence in East Africa
  32. Why did the Portuguese colonies in Africa engage in armed struggle to liberate themselves?
  33. Analyze the problems which faced Uganda during the nationalistic struggles
  34. Describe external and internal factors that gave rise to nationalism in Africa
  35. With examples, describe the different forms of decolonization in Africa
  36. Outline the main hindrances that faced struggle for political independence in Africa
  37. Discuss the causes and effects of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Southern Rhodesia in 1965?
  38. Why was Ghana among the earliest African Countries to achieve independence?
  39. Explain the causes and effects of the 1964 Zanzibar Revolution
  40. Discuss the role played by the nationalist parties in the struggle for independence in Africa
  41. Explain the methods that were employed by the Black society in South Africa in the struggle for their liberation
  42. Identify the external and internal forces which made Namibia to be the last country to eradicate colonialism in Africa.
  43. Portuguese colonialism in Africa was the last to be eradicated. Why was this case?
  44. What was the contribution of African Independent Church movements in the struggle against colonialism in Central Africa?
  45. “ Colonialism destroyed itself” basing on the contradictions after 1945 justify this statement
  46. Discuss the objectives of the African resistance against the imperialists in the early days of colonialism
  47. Discuss the motives and types of African Nationalism since the inception of colonialism
  48. What were the grievances that prompted the early African resistance against the intruders?
  49. Discuss the types of African nationalism and forces for its emergence.
  50. The Second World War was the watershed in the history of African nationalism. Discuss
  51. Discuss the formation of the cooperatives association and show their role in the rise of African nationalism after 1945
  52. Why colonialism established peasant cooperative unions and why they turned against them?
  53. Discuss the factors that led to ant-colonial struggle in Africa after 1945.
  54. Using specific examples assess the role of African independent churches in the struggle for African independence in African colonies.
  55. The Manchester conference of 1945 was a turning point in the history of pan-Africanism.
  56. What influence did Ghana’s independence have on the de-colonization of Africa and the formation of modern states of Africa?
  57. What were the lessons that Africans derive from Burma, India and Pakistan independence?
  58. Why USA has campaign for decolonization of Africa since 1945?
  59. Discuss the role of USSR to the anti-colonial struggle in sub-Saharan Africa?
  60. Discuss the role played by the Ghanaian independence to the rise of African nationalism.
  61. Evaluate the role of Nkwame Nkhuruma to the development of African nationalism.
  62. What were the contributions of Pan- African for the rise of nationalism in Africa?
  63. Why some countries their road to independence was not smooth?
  64. Why some African countries got their independence by the barrel of the gun?
  65. Was it necessary for Africans to use barrel of a gun for their independence?
  66. Show the extent to which the people of Zanzibar have benefited from the 1964 Zanzibar Revolution.


  1. Examine the factors for the formation of one-party and multi-party system in Africa
  2. What were the features of flag independence?
  3. Most of the problems of the post independent African states were inherited from colonialism. Discuss
  4. Explain the crucial problems faced the post independent African states immediately after independence.
  5. Describe the historical events that led to the formation of the union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar in April 26, 1964
  6. Discuss the success and failure of the union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar since 1964
  7. Discuss the problems facing African states since Independence.
  8. Outline the attempts made by African countries to solve the post- independence problems.
  9. What do you understand by Neo –colonialism? Show how it operates in Africa.
  10. Outline the strategic to be adopted by the third world countries in eradicating Neo –colonialism in Africa.
  11. Examine the causes of political Instabilities in Africa.
  12. How European influence led to the underdevelopment of Africa?
  13. Outline the steps the people of Tanzania have taken in solving their political, economic and social problems since independence
  14. Outline the development of racial discrimination in the South Africa mining industry since the last quarter of the 19th Century
  15. Show how Tanzania has been struggling to establish an independence socialist economy since 1967
  16. Account for the state of political instability and coups in many African countries since the attainment of political independence
  17. Describe the historical events that led to the formation of the Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar in April 1964
  18. Why was it necessary for African countries to change the political, ideological and administrative systems after gaining independence?
  19. When and why did apartheid policies emerge in South Africa?
  20. Discuss the efforts made by Tanzania government to bring about economic freedom since 1961.
  21. Identify the problems which have faced most African Countries since attaining independence at the beginning of the second half of the 20th Century
  22. What is the historical significance of the Arusha Declaration?
  23. Colonial and neo- colonialism were both exploitative systems being experienced in Africa. To what extend did colonialism paved way to neo colonialism?
  24. The present political nature of Nigeria is the outcome of its pre-colonial and colonial history. Explain
  25. Why was multi-partism introduced to Tanzania in the early 1990s?
  26. Discuss the effects of civil war in Africa giving concrete examples
  27. Show the main factors contributing to political instability in most African Countries
  28. What problems have African countries experienced in their efforts to build socialism?
  29. With concrete examples from Tanzania assess the factors that made independent African states change their social, political and economic outlook a few years after independence
  30. Explain the main sources of hostility between African societies and the white settlers from the 17th C to 19th C in South Africa.
  31. The East African Heads of state are trying all efforts necessary to re-establish the East African Community since 1996. Explain
  32. Assess for the state of political instability and coups tat in many Africa Countries since the attainment of independence
  33. Critically describe the practices and collapse of Apartheid policy in the Republic of South Africa
  34. Account for the rise of multiparty system politics in 1990s in many African countries
  35. Discuss the difference between Coup d’etat and a Revolution
  36. Why one party system politics short-lived in the post independent African states?
  37. Account for the political instability in the post independent African states
  38. What were the impacts of civil wars in the post independent African states what solutions can you advance to solve the problem?
  39. Setting Tanganyika as an example show the originality of the debt crisis in African after independence
  40. The IMF and World Bank with their structural adjustment programme have created more problems to Africa than they have solved. Discuss
  41. Discuss the steps undertaken by Tanganyika to revive her economic crisis since the attainment of her independence in 1961.
  42. The Structural Adjustment Programme (SAPs) increases the dependency ratio of African nations to the metropole. Justify
  43. Why African nations have failed to fulfill their dream of creating a single African nation since 1960s?
  44. Examine the historical background of Biafra war in Nigeria
  45. “Despite the efforts made by African states to promote political and economic co-operation  has still been facing serious crises” Discuss


  1. Examine the objectives, success and problems of the defunct Organization of African Unity [O.A.U.]
  2. Describe the objectives, achievements and problems of the East African Community(E.A.C)
  3. Discuss the objectives, expected benefits and achievements of the New East African Cooperation
  4. What were the objectives, achievements and problems of the Southern African Development Community (SADC)
  5. Discuss the objectives, achievements and problems of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
  6. Outline the objectives, achievements and problems of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
  7. Discuss the purpose, success and problems of the United Nations Organizations (UNO)
  8. How does Tanzania benefit from its membership to the UNO?
  9. Give an account of the principles, benefits and problems of the Common Wealth
  10. Explain the achievements and problems of the French Community
  11. Discuss the objectives, achievements and problems of the Non- Aligned Movement (NAM)
  12. Show how Tanzania benefited from participating in the NAM
  13. Describe the objectives, achievements and problems of the European Union (EU)
  14. Examine the relationship between the European Union and developing countries of Africa, Caribbean and Asia
  15. Explain the background to the conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbours (The middle East crises)
  16. To what extent have Africa Members benefited from the Common Wealth of Nations?
  17. What have been the major success and problems of the OAU since it formation?
  18. How has membership in the Non-Aligned Movement helped independent African Countries?
  19. “ The history of the Organization of African Unity is characterized by a number of problem”. Elaborate
  20. Despite its role in the international community, the organization of African Unity (OAU) had several weaknesses. Explain
  21. Outline the similarities and difference between the aims and functions of the Commonwealth Nations and those of the French Community
  22. With relevant example, show the challenges most likely to face the New East African Community.
  23. Explain the reasons that led to the collapse of the East African Community in 1977
  24. How has the international community involved itself in maintaining peace in East and Central Africa regions since 1960?
  25. Discuss the role played by the Organization of Africa Unity (OAU) in the decolonization of Africa
  26. Why has the dream of a United Africa not been achieved?
  27. Discuss the benefits gained by the members of the Commonwealth  
  28. How has the membership in the Non- Aligned Movement helped independent African countries?
  29. Show the economic and political roots of Central African Federation and highlight the main oppositions which retarded the Federation
  30. Assess the success of the former Organization of African Union since its creation in 1960s.
  31. How has the International Community involved itself in maintaining peace in East and Central African regions?
  32. Why did Tanzania withdraw herself from COMESA?
  1. Assess the role of the New International Economic Order in the struggle of the African countries against the system of underdevelopment .........................................................................................................................................
                   ESSAY WRITING IN HISTORY


The main objective of these techniques is to enable students to acquire skills that will help them to attempt questions in History Subject particularly Essay type questions in section C in Ordinary level Certificate Examinations.

Procedures in Writing Essay.

The first step should be to read the question once, twice or even thrice, to grasp its meaning.
The second step is to note the following.
i.    How many questions are contained in the general question?
Example. How and why the colonial economy established in East Africa?
In this question there are two questions, How and Why

ii.    How many parts are there to each question?
Example. Identify and discuss the main features of the colonial economy.
Here there are two parts: Identify and Discuss

iii.    What question tags are used?
A tag is a key word or words used to formulate a question.
Example. Discuss, identify, show how, examine, say why, what, give reasons, account for, etc

iv.    What topic/issue is the question about?
Example: How did the colonial state maintain settler interests in Kenya?
TOPIC: The colonial economy
“Political instability in Africa is inevitable”
TOPIC: Current events

v.    Does the question tag combine topics and or issues?
Example. “ It has been argued that the present situation of African undervelopment is a historical phenomenon” Analyse the meaning of this statement.
This question combines the following sub-topics.
Early contacts and trade with external world particularly Europeans.
Mercantilism and slave trade
The establishment of colonial rule
The colonial economy
Neo – colonialism

vi.    Outline the question.
After determining (a) through (f) above you can now begin to answer the question. You start by giving an outline. The advantages of doing so are.
·    It allows logical arrangement of the relevant points
·    It saves time
·    It helps determine the time used to exhaust one point. If there are many points, the outline will compel you to be brief.
           vii.        The shape of the answer comes next and should contain an introduction,                 a main body, and a conclusion.
In concise, clear language, explain your understanding of the question and include:
A definition where necessary
A periodization of events/phenomenon
Participants in these events
Brief note on what you will say in the main body that follows
Go straight to the point and avoid verbiage.(brabra)
Use a short paragraph for each point you make. Writing in short, clear sentences normally help to get your point across.
Provide only relevant examples where necessary. Irrelevant examples will get your work penalized.
Arrange your points chronologically. That is, according to the sequence of historical events.

        Summarize what you have said, sorting out historical events in sequence.
                        It is important to recap what you have said as some readers look for responses to
                        questions in the conclusion.

Qn. Outline the effects of long distance trade to the people of East Africa.
-Meaning of long distance trade
- Participants
- Commodities involved
-Routes of long distance trade.
 Theme (main body)
Effects of long distance trade.
Growth of towns in the interior parts of East Africa
Growth of different Kingdoms
Rise and expansion of slave trade
Introduction of new culture
Development and emergence of new towns or cities along the coast.
Some traders became rich
Exploitation of East African wealth and resources.

Long distance trade was the local trade which penetrated from the interior to the coast of East Africa. There is no clear time to show when this trade started in East Africa.
The main participants in this trade were the Arabs, the Swahili traders like Tippu Tip, Mwinyi Kheri and others, The African traders like the Yao, Nyamwezi, The Kamba and others where the trade caravans passed.
    There were three major routes which branched at different locations. The Northern route passed through Pangani, Tanga, Mombasa, Kilimanjaro and Lake Baringo. This route was dominated by the Kamba from Kenya. The Central route passed through Bagamoyo, Tabora, Ujiji, Katanga, Buganda, and Bunyoro. The main dominants of this route were the Nyamwezi. The Southern route was under the Yao, which passed through Kilwa Kivinje, Lake Nyasa, the country of Yao Makua and Makonde towards the Mwenemutapa Empire.
During this trade, commodities from the interior were salt, gold, ivory, bee-wax, animals’ skins, slaves and tortoise shells, and exchanged with the materials like swords, daggers, whisky, mirror, beads and guns along the coast.
    Long distance trade affected East African societies negatively and positively. The following mentioned and explained below are some of those effects.
    It led to the growth of towns in the interior parts of East Africa. Towns like Tabora, Ujiji, and others came to expand due to their involvement in this trade.
    Also, long distance trade led to rise and expansion of some kingdoms, where they became strong. Some Kingdoms like Buganda, Hehe, Nyamwezi and Karagwe were among of those Kingdoms that rose during this trade.
    Long distance trade stimulated slave trade in East Africa. Slaves were among of the commodities that were exported from East Africa to external World, particularly to Asia and Mauritius and Reunion after the arrival of Oman Sultanate in Zanzibar in the 1840s.
    Introduction of new culture in East Africa was another effect. The interaction between the indigenous people of East Africa and the foreigners who engaged themselves in this trade led to the birth of mulattoes through intermarriage and spread of Islamic religion along the coast.
    Long distance trade led to the rise and expansion of Coastal cities like Bagamoyo, Zanzibar, Kilwa, Lamu and Mombasa which acted as market centres during this trade along the coast of East Africa.
    In this trade many traders became very rich due to their involvement in that trade. The Arabs, Swahili traders and later the Portuguese participated in this trade.
    During this trade, the wealth and resources of East African societies were ruined and exploited. There was no equal balance of trade, where valuable materials like Gold, Ivory, Animal skins, and human being were exchanged with low valuable materials like whisky, clothes, swords, porcelains and mirrors.
    Conclusively, this long distance trade exposed the wealth of East Africa to the rest of the World where later this trade was replaced by Slave trade in the region.


ACCOUNT FOR: Why? Give reasons.

  1. COMPARE: look for similarities and differences between
  2. CONTRAST: set in position in order to bring out differences between
  3. COMPARE AND CONTRAST: give similarities and display the differences between
  4. CRITICISE: give your judgments about the merit of a theory or opinions or about the    
  5.                   truth of facts and back your judgments with discussion of the evidence.
  6. DEFINE: give the meaning of a word or phrase.
  7. DISCUSS: investigate, give ideas by argument, giving reasons, pro and cons to debate
  8. DESCRIBE: give a detailed or graphic clear picture in the mind/ account of or portrayal of
  9.     a person, scene, or event, a technical account or definition
  10. EVALUATE:  make an appraisal of the worth of something in the light of its truth and
  11.                               ability. Include to a lesser extent or degree of your personal opinion.
  12. EXPLAIN: to make plain, to interpret and to account for.
  13. EXAMINE: look at carefully in order to learn about or from.
  14. ILLUSTRATE: use a figure or diagram to explain or to clarify or make clear by the use if
  15.         concrete examples.
  16. INTERPRET: expound the meaning of, make clear and explicit usually by giving your
  17.      judgement.
  18. JUSTIFY: show adequate grounds for decision or conclusion
  19. OUTLINE: give the main features or general principles of a subject omitting minor details 
  20.                          and emphasizing structure and arrangement- what, why, when
  21. SHOW: cause to be seen, guide, conduct, to offer for public view, to indicate, give to 
  22.                          understand, to point out.
  23. IDENTIFY: say, show, prove who or what somebody or something is establishing the
  24.                           identity of.
  25. TO WHAT EXTENT: to what length or area or range or degree.
  26. GIVE PROS AND CONS: give the advantages and disadvantages of a phenomenon
  27. GIVE HIGHLIGHTS: show the outstanding part of a performance, show an event of
  28.                                           special importance to draw special attention to something.
  29. HOW: in what way, in what manner, by what means.
  30. SHOW THE ROLE: show the part or duty in undertaking
  31. ASSESS THE ACHIEVEMENTS: test the value of
  32. RELATE: connect in thought or meaning
  33. ANALYSE: examine something in order to learn what it is made up of. Study or examine 
  34.                            in order to learn about.
  35. COMMENT: give opinion, views
  36. EXPLORE: examine thoroughly problems or possibilities for the purpose of learning about.
  37. ASSESS: test the value of
  38. APPRAISE: evaluate, say what something is worth.
  39. CONSIDER: think about
  40. ESTIMATE: approximate, form a judgments about, calculate the value
  41. SUMMARISE: brief, the chief points
  42. TRACE: outline, sketch, draw
  43. TO WHAT DEGREES: step or stage
  44. WOULD YOU AGREE?: if you say YES or NO should write the reasons. Also do you agree?
  45. IN WHAT RESPECT: consideration detail, relation.
  46. WHAT DO YOU THINK?: reasonable
  47. WHAT IS YOUR ARGUMENT?: reasoned discussion
  48. WHAT LIMITS: point that cannot be passed
  50. EXAMINE THIS CONTENTION: quarreling or disputing
  51. GIVE A BRIEF ACCOUNT: reason briefly.
  52. MAKE A CRITICAL EXAMINATION: make judgments
  53. DO YOU AGREE WITH THIS ASSERTION: claim, strong statement
  54. ELABORATE THIS VIEW: work out in great detail


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